A&P Midterm 2
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1.What do "os" and "osteo" generally refer to?
2. What is the matrix?
3. What are osteoblasts?
2. a sparse population of cells that are embedded in in a hard intracellular substance. (osteoblasts make this) Bone is composed of this!
3. They are build bone! They secrete the matrix. (which is made up of polysaccharides)
1. What are polysaccharides?
2. What is ossification?
1. protein and complex carbs
2. How bone is formed and hardened. Osteoblasts harden the matrix. The matrix is filled with calcium and and phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite crystals. (gives bone its hardness). Osteoblasts get stuck in lacunae(spaces in ossified matrix). Once the osteoblasts are surrounded by bone, that are now called osteocytes.
What are the 4 functions of bones?
- 1. Support- (tissues and cells are soft and not strong. By being attached to bones it allows for support)
- 2. Protection- (bones protect many vital organs)
- 3. Leverage/Movement- (the attachment of tendons to bones allows the muscles to move to joints)
- 4. Storage- (bones act as reservoirs for minerals, particularly calcium)
What is hematopoiesis?
Blood cell formation in the bone marrow. (fills the interiors)
1. What is cancellous bone?
2. What is compact bone?
1. It's also known as spongy bone. It is surprisingly strong and reduces the weight of the bones.
2. very dense and strong bone. It makes up the shafts of long bones. It's composed of: haversian systems, haversian canals, canaliculi, periosteum, and endosteum.
1. What is periosteum?
2. What is endosteum?
3. What is canaliculi?
4. What is a haversian system?
5.What is a haversian canal?
1. It is a membrane that covers the outer surfaces of bones (except joint surfaces)
2. A membrane that covers the hollow inner surfaces of bone.
3. Tiny channels that run through bone. It allows osteocytes to contact each other and exchange nutrients & wastes.
4. Tightly compacted multilayered cylinders of bone, they consist of ossified bone matrix. Runs lengthwise around a haversian canal.
5. Contain blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves that supply the osteocytes.
1. What are osteoclasts?
2. What are osteocytes?
1. the evil twin of osteoblasts. Instead of forming bone..they eat it away!
2. When osteoblasts become trapped in the ossified matrix they created, they become osteocytes.
*Most of the blood supply to the bone comes from blood vessels that penetrate the periosteum.
1. What is the nutrient foramina?
1. large blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves come in through these canals. (primarily carry blood in and out of the bone marrow)
1. What two mechanisms is bone formed by?
2. What is the diaphysis?
1. 1) Cartilage bone formation (endochondral)- most bones are formed by this
2) Membrane bone formation (intramembranous)
2. the shaft of a bone
1. What are epiphyses?
2. What are epiphyseal plates?
1. the ends of a bone
2. growth plates. They are located between the diaphysis and epiphysis.
What 3 things are necessary for optimal healing in a bone?
- 1. alignment
- 2. immobilization
- 3. time
1. What is callus?
1. healing tissue that bridges the fracture gap. It can be felt as a lump on the fracture site.
What are the 4 types of bones?
- 1. Long bones- longer than they are wide. Diaphysis is the main part.
- 2. Short bones- cube shaped bones. Consist of a core of spongy bone surrounded by a thin layer compact. (carpal and tarsal)
- 3. Flat bones- 2 thin layers of compact bone with cancellous(spongy) bone in the middle. ex: skull bones, pelvic bone, and shoulder blade.
- 4. Irregular bones- misc. category. ex: vertebrae, sesamoids.
1. What is bone marrow?
2. What is red marrow?
3. What is yellow marrow?
1. fills the spaces within bones (there's red and yellow)
2. it forms blood cells.
3. It consists mainly of adipose connective tissue (fat)
1. What are articular surfaces?
2. What is a condyle?
3. What is a head?
4. What is a facet?
1. They are joint surfaces. It's where compact bone comes into contact with each other to form joints.
2. a large round articular surface. (on the end of humerus, femur, and rib)
3. the spherical articular surface on the proximal end of a long bone.
4. a flat articular surface. The movement between two facets is a rocking motion. (found on tarsal, carpal, and vertebrae)
1. What are processes?
2. What is a foramen?
3. What is a fossa?
1. all the lumps, bumps, and other projections from bones. They are usually sites where tendons attach.
2. a hole in a bone
3. a sunken area on a surface of a bone.
1. What is the skull?
2. What is the axial skeleton?
3. What is the appendicular skeleton?
1. The most complex part of a skeleton. It consists of 37-38 bones. (it protects the brain)
2. the bones of the head and trunk
3. the bones of the limbs/appendages
1. What is the ethmoid bone?
2. What is the cribiform plate?
1. A skull bone. Located at the rostral end of the sphenoid.(dorso caudal part of nasal cavity) It contains a cribiform plate.
2. Many branches of olfactory nerves pass through here (sense of smell) to the olfactory bulbs of the brain. (upper portion of nasal cavity)
1. What is the vomer bone?
2. What is the nasal septum?
3. What are turbinates (aka nasal conchae) ?
1. a single bone of the midline of the skull. It forms part of the nasal septum.
2. the wall that separates left and right nasal passages.
3. They are scroll like bones that fill the nasal cavity. They warm and humidify air that passes through. They also prevent foriegn material from getting in.
1. What is the hyoid bone? (hyoid apparatus)
2. What is the spinal/vertebral column?
1. Called "bone" but its actually a bunch of small bones. It is located high in the neck, just above the layrnx. Between the caudal ends of the mandible. It supports the base of the tongue and helps the animal swallow.
2. It is made up of a series of vertebrae that extend from to skull to the tip of the tail. 5 categories (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, saccral, and coccygeal)
1. What is the vertebral formula for a cat?
2. What is a vertebral formula for a dog?
3. What is a vertebral formula for a horse?
1. C=7, T=13, L=7, S=3, Cocc=20
2. C=7, T= 13, L=7, S=3, Cocc=20
3. C=7, T=18, L=6, s=5, Cocc=20
1. What is c1 called?
2. What is c2?
1. The atlas (it holds up the head)
2. The axis (it features a large blade-like spinous process that projects up. It also has peg-like dens that fit into the caudal end of the atlas)
1. What is IVDD?
2. What is Wobbler Syndrome?
1. Intervertebral Disk Disease- when the disk degenerates and protrudes into the spinal canal and presses on the spinal chord. This can cause pain, numbness, weakness, and paralysis. **Long backed breeds
2. A narrowing of the spinal canal in the cervical region that compresses the spinal chord. It causes a wobbly, uncoordinated gate. (NUTRITION MAY HAVE A FACTOR. Great danes..basset hounds..Doberman pinschers...thoroughbred horses)
1. What is the Anticlinal vertebrae?
1. A convenient landmark because it projects upward. Vertebra T11.
1. What is the ununited anconeal process in the dog?
2. What is osetoarthritis?
1. The anconeal process is not attached properly due to improper development. It did not form at the correct/secure growth center in the ulnar shaft. IT RUBS IN THE JOINT. Can eventually cause lameness and osteoarthritis. (common in large breed dogs like burmese mountain dog)
2. also known as dengenerative joint disease (DJD). Wear and tear on joints.
What is Navicular disease in horses?
- When the navicular (distal sesamoid) begins to chronically degenerate. This is painful!!
- It damages the bone itself, damages the bone's blood supply, nearby tendons and ligaments can be destroyed.
- -the animal will try to shift weight off the heel affected. It is NOT curable but pain relief can be provided through corrective shoeing & drug therapy.
What is Canine Hip Dysplasia?
The femoral head is loose or unstable in the acetabulum. It can dislocate.
-it may be due to nutrition (too rapid of growth), exercise, or genetics.
1. What is patellar luxation in dogs?
2. What are canine os penis problems?
1. A physical abnormality that causes the 'pull" of the tendon to be off-line. This causes the patella to sometimes dislocate out towards the medial side. Ouch! occurs commonly in small dogs
2. Urinary calculi (stones) lodge in the urethra where it enters the narrow urethral groove at the base of the bone. It can obstruct flow of urine and may have to be surgically removed.
What is the visceral skeleton? Give 3 examples
Bones that form in soft organs.
- 1. os penis- bone in penis.
- 2. os rostri- bone in nose of swine (pigs) for digging
- 3. os cordis- bone in the heart of cattle and sheep to help support valves of the heart.
1. What are joints?
2. What are 3 types of joints? (explain and give example of each)
1. joints connect bones together (synarthroses, amphiarthroses, and diarthroses)
2. 1)Fibrous joints-
They are united by fibrous tissue and are synarthroses
.(DONT MOVE) ex: sutures
that unite skull bones
- 2)Cartilaginous Joints- they are amphiarthroses. (slight rocking)
- ex: intervertebral disks between the adjacent vertebrae in the spine.
3) Synovial Joints-
they are free moving (diarthroses)
What is a Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture (CCL)?
A wrong footstep that leads to a CCL rupture or tear. It can occur in overweight or sedentary dogs if they land wrong while jumping off the couch.
What is the atlantooccipital joint?
What are the dens of the axis? (atlantoaxial joint)
1. The "yes joint" in the skull. A hinge
2. The no joint. pivot
1. What is the integumentary system?
2.What is adnexa?
1. the skin and other structures (nails, skin, hooves, horns ect)
2. hair, hooves, nails, horns.
Name all the layers of the Epidermis from bottom to surface
- Stratum Basale
- Stratum Spinosum
- Stratum Granulosum
- Stratum Lucidum
- Stratum Corneum
1. What are vibrissae?
2. What are tactile elevations?
1. hairs for perception of touch
2. hairs that project out of epidermis for sensory of touch (vibrissae )
What is the mite most commonly linked to mange?
1. What is the papillary layer?
2. What is dermal papillae?
3. Where is tatoo ink injected?
1. just beneath epithelial layer of dermis. It is composed of lose connective tissue and form dermal papillae.
2. Nipple like/wave like projections that cement the epidermis and dermis together.
3. Into the dermis. because it will last a long time and not shed off like epidermis does
1. What is pigmentation caused by?
2. What are paw pads?
1. the presence or absence of melanin granules in the arms-like extensions of melanocytes. (no pigment is when granules are centered near nucleus)
2. Thick layers of fat and connective tissue. They bare the weight of the animal.
1.What is planum nasale? planum nasolabial?
2. What are chestnuts?
3. What are ergots?
1. the top of the nose in cats, dogs, pig, and sheep. the top of the nose is horses & cattle.
2. found on medial aspect of horses legs at the carpus/knee in front, and the medial aspect of the tarsus in the back.
3. buried in long hairs on the back side of the fetlock.
1. What are cutaneous pouches?
1. They are infoldings of skin found in sheep. (on their groin, between digits, and eyes)
- interdigital= feet
- inguinal= groin
1. What is a compound follicle?
2. What are primary hairs? secondary hairs?
1. multiple hair strands emerge from a single pore
2. primary= guard hair... secondary= under coat
1. What is the arrector pilli muscle?
**The cortex of a hair follicle is composed of hard keratin. makes it stiff and rigid.
*primary hairs are thicker and longer. There usually will be one primary hair surrounded by multiple secondary hairs. shorter.
it is a muscle thats attached to each hair follicle. When it contracts it makes the hair stand up
*sebum is white sem-liquid mixture that sebaceous glands produce.
1. What are sweat glands? What 2 types are there?
1. They release a liquid that helps cool body. Only horses sweat out of most mammals.
1) Aprocrine glands- coiled in hypodermis/dermis. Primary gland is dogs, cats, horses. ect. They empty into hair follicles.. not through skin like eccrine. odor specific to species.
2) Eccrine glands- coiled tube located in dermis or hypodermis. Mainly used in us..primates. dogs and ect. only have them in deep fat and paw pads. excrete water and salts out through skin...not hair follicles like eccrine.
1. What are anal sacs?
2. What are dew claws?
1. secrete foul smelling liquid produced by sebaceous and apocrine glands.
2. the remains of digits that have regressed in the course of evolution. Front=5 toes back=4 toes
What types of muscle tissue are there? explain them. Very detailed.
- 1. Skeletal muscle- moves the bones of the skeleton. It is voluntary striated muscle. It also generates heat and has multiple nuclei. The cells are long thin fibers. Nerve supply is necessary for function.
- 2. Cardiac muscle- it's the heart. It helps it beat and pump blood. It is involuntary striated muscle. It has a single nuclei structure. Nerve supply is not necessary for function. The cells are branched.
- 3. Smooth muscle- it is in internal organ, blood vessels, and the eye. It is involuntary and NOT striated. The cell shape is a spindle. It produces movement in internal organs for ex: the intestines. Nerve supply is not necessary for visceral. other things it is though.
1. What is aponeuroses?
2. What is the origin of the muscle?
3. What is the insertion of the muscle?
1. broad sheets of connective tissue. They attach muscles to bone.
2. the muscles attachment site.
3. The site that undergoes most of the movement when a muscle contracts.
Intramuscular Injection sites in Horses.
1. Where do you inject for the pelvic limb area?
2. Where do you inject in the neck region?
3. Where do you inject in the chest?
1. For pelvic limb: the gluteal muscles and the hamstring group.
2. Neck: the trapezius muscle (ventral neck. Triangle. Above C vertebrae though!)
3. Chest: Pectoral muscles
Intramuscular Injection sites in Cats and Dogs
1. Where do you inject in the pelvic limb area?
2. Where do you inject in the thoracic limb area?
- 1. For Pelvic limb:
- -Quadriceps femoris muscle (cranial aspect of thigh).
- -Hamstring group (biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus muscles). *gluteal isn't used often because sciatic nerve.
- 2. For Thoracic Limb:
- - tongue (only in emergencies)
In pigs and goats, what IM injection site is the best?
the neck..trapezius muscle!
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