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the police and the media share a Symbiotic relationship; they are mutually dependent on each other.
Freedom of Speech
Freedom of Speech and expression includes the right to speak and the right to be heard.
Guarantees the public's right to know - that is, freedom of the press.
News Media Echo effect
The theory that the Media have the power,through their coverage of isolated, high-profile cases,to influence the operations of the criminal justice system and even the disposition of individual cases.
Freedom of information act
Establishes the presumption that the records of the agencies and departments of the U.S. government are accessible to the people.
the "need to know" standard has been replaced by a "Right to Know
- the government has to justify keeping certain records secret. exceptions include:
- 1)national security
- 2)compromising a pending investigation
- 3)securing the privacy rights of an individual
cannot violate someone six amendment Right to a fair trail
PIO (Public information officer) Triangle.
Public information officer (PIO)An officer trained in public relations and assigned to disseminate information to the media.
what is the impact?
- The Triangle
- what happened? - release the facts as soon as information is confirmed and update as soon as new information is confirmed.
- provide information which addresses the public's safety and their concerns.
- what actions are being taken to resolve it? -tell the public what you are doing to manage the situation, how the process will work, how long it will take, expectations, and when things will "get back to normal"
- Weed and seed programs
- sought to identify, arrest, and prosecute offenders, (weed) while simultaneously working with citizens to improve quality of life (seed)
Police Media relations
- as police department adopt the community policing philosophy and implement its strategies, public support is vital. the media can play an important role in obtaining that support or in losing it.
- the media and the police are two powerful forces that depend on each other but are often hostile toward and mistrust each other.
- sources of Conflict include:
- 1)Competing Objective - right to know vs individual right to privacy and a fair trial
2)Contradictory Approaches to Dangerous Situations - media members often put them selfs in danger and Law Enforcement has to protect them
To improve police-media relations, journalists should be informed of a department's policies and procedures
regarding the media and crime scenes. officers should avoid police jargon
and technical terminology and respect reporters' deadlines
by releasing information in a timely manner so the news media has a chance to fully understand the situation.
unreported or undiscovered crime
Victims may consider the matter private, feel ashamed, or believe the police will be unable to do anything.
in cases of sexual assault, they feel they will not be believed.
some victims and witnesses fear threats or retaliation from the offender.
the most commonly implemented Crime Prevention Programs?
- street lighting Programs,
- property marking projects,
- security survey projects,
- citizen patrol projects,
- Crime reporting,
- neighborhood-watch or block projects
used as a means to detect and deter crime through CPTED (crime prevention through Environmental design)
improve the safety of citizens. and decrease citizens fear
help organize neighborhoods as mutual aid societies and as the eyes and ears of the police.
they serve to increase surveillance, reduce criminal opportunities, and enhance informal social control.
National Night Out
Nation wide program held on the first Tuesday of August. started in Tempe, Arizona.
Encourages Residents to turn on their porch Lights, go outside, and meet their neighbors in an effort to build stronger communities.
Citizen’s on Patrol
seek to deter crime and to provide a positive role model for young children
most known one is the Guardian Angels
Police/School liaison program
Places an officer in a school to work with school authorities, parents, and students to prevent crime and antisocial behavior and to improve police-youth relationships.
Community dispute resolution
- independent, community-based, nonprofit organizations. -
- 1) provide dispute resolutions resources for local communities
- 2) prevent escalation of disputes
- 3) relieve the courts of matters not requiring judicial intervention
- 4) teach individuals to resolve their problems through mediation
Organizational Change process
Part of CPTED (crime prevention through Environmental Design)
Refers to making potential objectives of criminals more difficult to obtain though use of improved locks, alarm systems, and security cameras.
The theory that suggests that successful implementation of a crime-reduction initiative doesn't really prevent crime; instead it just moves crime to another area
the Communication Process involves: a sender, a message, a channel, a receiver and sometimes feedback.
(channel - sender encodes the message in words - spoken or written- and transmit it by phone, texting, fax, letter, in person, or another way)
involves transferring thoughts from one person's mind to another's. the people involved, the accuracy of the message in expressing the sender's thoughts, and channel used all affect Communication.
important characteristics include : age, education, gender, values, emotional involvement, self-esteem, and language skills.
is an attitude
it is critical to recognize Prejudices and stereotypes to avoid discrimination.
Bias - a Prejudice or belief that inhibits objectivity; can evolve into hate
Prejudice - a negative judgement not based on fact; irrational preconceived negative opinion.
- Prejudice - is an attitude
- Discrimination - is a behavior. (acting on a prejudice)
- Racial profiling - A form of Discrimination
- that singles out people of racial or ethnic groups because of a belief that these groups are more likely than other to commit certain types of crimes. Race-based enforcement is illegal
the preference for one's own way of life over all others.
example: people are naturally attracted to others who are similar to themselves because the feel less uncertain about how similar people will respond to them and more certain about the likelihood that similar people will agree with them
Beat and shift rotations
Traditional shift and beat Rotation works to the detriment of building partnerships
a neighborhood-focused court that offers an immediate, visible response to quality-of-life offenses that disrupt and degrade the community and provides an efficient way to process the most frequent types of complaints.