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All changes in the original form and/or size of a rock body (folds, faults, joints).
The force applied to a given area
Changes, caused by stress, in the shape or size of a rock body.
List and describe the 3 different types of stress.
Compressional Stress: shortens/thickens a rock unit. Causes folding.
Tensional Stress: elongates/thins a rock unit
Shear Stress: causes adjacent parts to slide by one another; smears/tears a rock unit
Tectonically, where do you expect each stress to occur?
- Compressional - Divergent
- Tensional - Convergent
- Shear - Transform
Discuss how temperature, confining pressure, rock type, and time all affect rock deformation.
Distinguish between brittle and ductile deformation.
If elastic limit/strength of a rock is surpassed it either flows (ductile) or fractures (brittle)
Which is involved in folds? faults?
- Ductile - folds
- Fractures - faults
List /describe each of the 5 types of folds we studied in class. Give examples.
Anticlines: up folded or arched rock layers(oldest material)
Synclines: downfolds/thoughs of rock layers(youngest material)
Monoclines: large, step-like folds in otherwise horizontal layers. Buried faults
Dome - upward displacement
Basin - downward displacement
What stress is often involved in folding?
List/describe the 5 types of faults we studied in class.
Normal faults(tensional) - Hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall. Fault block mtns.
Reverse and thrust faults(compressional) - Hanging wall moves up relative to footwall.
Right/left lateral faults - Dominant displacement is horizontal, parallel to the strike of the fault.
Give specific location examples for each type of fault.
List and describe specific landforms associated with faulting.
- California Coast Range
- Basin and Range
Briefly discuss the origin and significance of joints.
Joint: A fracture with no movement
Economic mineral deposits are often emplaced along joints
Chemical weathering is often concentrated along joints
Highly jointed rocks are often a risk to construction projects