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What is apposition?
Describes the manner in which the fragmented ends of the bone contact each other
When the ends of the bone fragments make end to end contact describes
When the ends of bone fragments are aligned but pulled apart describes
Lack of apposition (distraction)
When the fragments of bone overlap and the shafts make contact but not the fracture ends describes
Loss of alignment of the fracture describes
When the direction of angle of the apex of the fracture, much as a medial or lateral apex, wherein the point or apex of the fracture points medially or laterally
When the distal part of the distal fragments angled toward the midline of the body, results in lateral apex that points away from the midline describes
When the distal parts of the distal fragments are angles away from the midline, the apex is pointed toward the midline describes
When a bone does not break through the skin this fracture is termed
When a portion of bone protrudes through the skin this is termed
When a fracture does not traverse through entire bone it is termed
When the cortex of a bone buckles in an incomplete fracture an dis characterized by localized expansion of the cortex, possibly little or no displacement, and no complete break in cortex describes
When the cortex on one side of the bone is broken, and the other side is bent. When the bone straightens a faint fracture line in the cortex may be seen in on the oppisite side
Greenstick (hickory or willow stick) fx
When a fracture is at a near right angle to the long axis of the bone.
Is this complete or incomplete?
When the bone is splintered or crushed at the site of impact, resulting in two or more fragments this is termed
A type of double fracture in which two fracture lines isolate a distinct segment of bone; the bone is broken into three pieces, with the middle fragment fractures at both ends
A comminuted fx with two fragments on each side of a main, wedge-shaped separate fragment
A comminuted fx wherein the bone is in this sharp fragments
A fx wherein one fragment is firmly driven into the other. Commonly occur at distal or proximal ends of the femur, humerus or radius.
An interarticular fx of the posterior lip of the distal radius
A fracture of the distal phalanx caused by a ball striking the end of an extended finger. The DIP joint is partially flexed, and an avulsion fracture frequently is present at the posterior bade of the distal phalanx
Baseball (mallet) fx
This longitudinal fx, which occurs at the base of the first metacarpal with the fracture line entering the carpometacarpal joint, generally includes posterior dislocation or subluxation
This fracture most commonly involves the distal fifth metacarpal with an apex posterior angulaiton best demonstrated on the lateral view. IT results from punching something
This fracture of the wrist in which the distal radius is fractured with the distal fragment displaced posteriorly may result from a forward fall on an outstretched arm
A fracture of the wrist with the distal fragment of the radius displaced anteriorly; commonly results from a backward fall on an outstretched arm
This fracture occurs through the pedicles of the axis (C2) with or without displacement of C2 or C3
An interarticular fx of the radial styloid process. The name originates from the time when hand cranked cars would backfire striking the lateral side of the distal forearm
Hutchinson's (chauffeur's) fx
This fracture of the proximal half of the ulna along with dislocation of the radial head, may result from defending against blows with the raised forearm
This term is used to describe a complete fracture of the distal fibula with major injury to the ankle, including ligament damage and frequent fracture of the distal tibia or medial malleolus
This fracture results from severe stress to a tendon or ligament in a joint region. A fragment of bone is separated or pulled away by the attached tendon or ligament.
These fractures result from a direct blow to the orbit and/or maxilla and zygoma. They create fractures to the orbital floor and lateral margins, respectively
Blowout or tripod fracture
A fracture that is most evident radiographically by a decreased dimension of the anterior vertebral body
A fracture of the skull
Depressed or ping-pong fx
A fracture through the epiphyseal plate. One of the most easily fracture sites in ling bones of children
What method do radiologists use to describe the severity of an epiphyseal fx in children
- Salter-Harris classification
- Salter 5 indicating most complex
Fractures that are due to disease processes within the bone
In this fracture lines radiate from a central point of injury with a starlike pattern. Most commonly occurs at the patella from hitting the dashboard in an MVA
Nontraumatic in origin. Thsi fx results from repeated stress on a bone such as from marching or running. If marching; these fractures usually occur in the midshafts of the metatarsals; if from running, they are in the distal shaft of the tibia
Stress or fatigue fx (march)
This fx involves an isolated bone fragment; it is not caused by tendon or ligament stress
A fracture of the ankle joitn involving the medial, lateral and posterior malleoli of the distal tibia
This comminuted fracture of the distal phalanx may be caused by a crushing blow to the distal finger or thumb.
Tuft or burst fx
How much must you increase technique for what types of casts
- Small to medium paster cast: mAs 50-60% or kV+5-7
- Large plaster cast: mAs 100% or +8-10 kV
- Fiberglass cast: mAs 25-30% or +3-4 kV
How is the CR directed for an oblique sternum?
- Pt. supine and angle CR as if in an LPO 15-20 degrees mediolaterally. Ensure that grid is properly aligned. Center 1 1/2" above jugular notch
- Less angle for large pt's. more more thin pt's
Explain trauma oblique ribs
- AP above diaphragm: center 3-4" below jug notch. Below: bottom of cassette at crest
- Oblique: Cr angled mediolaterally 30-40 degrees with grid crosswise. Downside (injury) will be elongated.
What is a good projection for for demonstrating a possible abdominal aortic aneurysm?
How is the patient positioned for a trauma elbow?
- Hand pronated and elbow partially flexed. PA: place IR between arm and patient. Direct horizontal CR to be perpendicular to interepicondylar plane.
- Lateral: With arm in similar position, place IR under elbow and forearm and angle CR as needed to be parallel to interepicondylar plane.
For trauma axiolaterals: When you are looking for the radial head angle CR ___________
When looking for coronoid angle ____________
- Toward shoulder 45 degrees
- Away from shoulder 45 degrees
Describe AP and lateral humerus
- AP- IR underneath arm
- Lateral distal-IR vertical between arm and thorax. Flex elbow 90* if possible.
- Lateral prox-horizontal transthoracic. Center to surgical neck
- If pt can be moved, do Y
What is the angle for an axial clavicle projection?
- 30* cephalic for a thin pt
- 15* for thick pt
What are the positions for trauma skull, angulation, and centering points?
- Lateral: 2" superior to EAM
- AP: 0* to OML. 10-15* caudad.Glabella
- Reverse Caldwell: 15* cephalad to OML. Nasion
- Towne: 30* caudad to OML or 37* to IOML. Center midway between EAM's, exiting foramen magnum
Describe reverse waters and modified reverse waters for facial bones
- angle CR cephalad to be parallel with MML
- Center at acanthion
- or angle CR cephald parallel to LML for modified to see to see floor of orbits and entire orbital rim
AP, Axial and Axiolateral mandible
- AP-caudad to be parallel to OML. Center at junction of lips
- Axial-Angle CR 35* to 40* caudad to OML. Center to pass thru region of condyloid processes, about 2" anterior to EAMs
- Axiolateral-Angle horizontal CR 25*-30* cephalad and posteriorly 5-10*. Center 2" inferior to angle of mandible on side away from IR
What is best seen on an AP projection of the mandible?
rami and lateral body
What is best seen on a AP axial projection for mandible?
condyloid processes, condyles and TMJ's
What is best seen on an axiolateral oblique projection of the mandible?
rami, body and mentum