NSB test 2

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NSB test 2
2013-11-05 14:10:25
lecture9 15

motivation/homeostasis emotion drugs hearing/language vision
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  1. set point in homeostasis
    the point of equilibrium that the systems returns to
  2. different theories of motivation
    • 1. drive theory
    • 2. incentive theory
    • 3. arousal theory
    • 4. instinct theory
  3. Motivation theory: drive
    • the body maintains homeostasis in its systems; departure from homeostasis produces arousal or drive 
    • EX: hunger thirst, temperature
  4. Motivation theory: incentive
    • motivated by external stimuli, not just normal needs
    • EX: money, grades, praise
  5. Motivation theory: arousal
    • people have their preferred level
    • EX: sensation seeking
  6. Motivation theory: instinct
    • automatic and unlearned, occurs in all species 
    • EX: migration, maternal behavior 
  7. 5 divisions of homeostatic regulation
    • 1. organs and their local reflexes 
    • 2. autonomic and endocrine messengages
    • 3. brain-stem regulation 
    • 4. hypothalamic integrations
    • 5. inputs from higher brain centers
  8. organs and their local reflexes
    systems of built-in organ reflexes need no higher regulation
  9. autnomic and endocrine messages
    2 avenues of descending communication to organs
  10. brainstem regulation
    reflex centers regulate autonomic output to organs
  11. hypothalamic integration's
    • regulates endocrine messengers 
    • coordinate actions of brainstem autonomic nuclei
  12. inputs from higher brain centers
    higher areas of the brain
  13. hierarchy of homeostatic controls
    • bottom
    • organs have intrinsic reflex mechanisms to operate when external conditions are constant (sa node)
    • organs have ANS loops at spinal cord to aid local regulation
  14. negative feedback
    • detecting a state of feedback 
    • comparing it to a set point
    • excreting the opposite influence
  15. temperature regulation (two types)
    • ectothems: cant regulate body temp internally (reptiles:cold blooded)
    • endotherms: regulate their body temp by dilating or constricting blood vessels, adjusting metabolism, sweating (mammals)
  16. what area regulates temperature?
    • preoptic area of the hypothalamus receives input; initiates temp regulating responses
    • EX: panting, sweating, shivering
  17. temperature vs energy expenditure
    • we spend 2/3 of our energy maintaining temp
    • WHY?
    • warm muscles
    • proteins are unstable at higher temps 
    • certain bacteria grow less feverishly at higher temps
  18. two types of thirst

  19. Osmotic thirst
    • low fluid content in cells;
    • water is drawn from cells into blood to copensate for food intake
    • signals the median preoptic nucleus to initiate drinking
  20. Hypovolemic thirst
    • blood volume drops;
    • sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, blood loss
    • detected by receptors in heart and kidneys 
    • info from the heart relayed by vagus nerve to the brainstem and hypothalamus 
    • the kidneys release the hormone to the renin; signals the median preoptic nucleus 
  21. hunger signals
    • lipoprivic hunger
    • glucoprivic hunger
    • ghrelin
  22. hunger signals: lipoprivic
    • a deficit in fatty acids
    • carried by the vagus nerve to the nucleus of the solitary tract (brainstem) then A.N
  23. hunger signals: glucoprivic
    • glucose deficit
    • carried by the vagus nerve to the nucleus of the solitary tract (brainstem) then A.N
  24. hunger signals: ghrelin
    • there is a release of this as the stomach empties
    • reaches the nucleus of the solitary tract (brainstem) via bloodstream, then A.N
  25. digestion phases
    • digestive
    • absorptive
    • fasting
  26. digestion
    • mouth -> stomach food mixes with hydrochloric acid and pepsin to further digest 
    • mostly happens in small intestine
    • products are absorbed through the intestinal walls (nutrients are transported to the liver by hepatic portal vein)
  27. absorption
    • body uses nutrients arriving from digestive system 
    • rising glucose levels activate the parasympathetic system (release of insulin from pancreas) 
    • nutrients are also stored for future use (glucose = glycogen stored in liver and muscles)
  28. absorption: insulin
    • hormone secreted by the pancreas that enables body cells to take up glucose for energy and certain cells to store excess nutrients 
    • the ones inside the NS do NOT need insulin (brain priority to glucose) 
  29. fasting
    glucose levels have fallen and the body must rely on stored nutrients 1. sysmpathetic NS releases glucagon from pancreas, converts livers glycogen to glucose 2. insulin levels are low, glucose is available only to the NS3. glucagon breaks down stored fat into fatty acids and glycerol
  30. glucose vs. glycogen vs. glucagon vs. glycerol
    glucagon is secreted from the pancreas, which the converts the livers glycogen to glucose 

    is from fats, also converted into glucose (for the brain)
  31. emotion
    • an increase or decrease in physiological activity accompanied by feelings and often a characteristic behavior or facial expression 
    • CLEAR autonomic and somatic NS changes (heart racing, contraction, facial muscles)
  32. discrete vs. dimensional emotion debate
    • are emotions basic modules that are embedded in our nervous system 
    • OR
    • are they categories based off contextual cues and life experience
  33. discrete emotion (william james)
    event -> emotion -> action (feeling, face, voice, PNS)
  34. dimensional emotion (Wilhelm Wundt)
    • emotions are categorizations 
    • 1. resulting from situational context and embodied knowledge 
    • 2. captured by dimensional scales (high/low arousal and pleasant/unpleasant)
  35. james lange theory of emotion
    • emotional experience resulting from the physiological arousal that precedes it 
    • different emotions are the result of different patters of arousal 
    • emotion producing stimulus -> physiological response -> feeling of emotion
  36. cognitive theory (schacter-singer)
    • physio-arousal contributes only to emotions intensity (swinging bridges and sexual attraction) 
    • identity of the emotion is based on the cognitive assessment of the situation
    • emotion producing stimulus -> social and environmental influences -> feeling of emotion
  37. ekmans facial feedback
    posed expressions could produce intended emotion and distinct pattern of physiological arousal
  38. evidence for facial feedback in emotion
    • posing facial expression affects how we interpret the environment 
    • stimulus is painful when making a sad face
    • boxtox decreases bad moods/anger (less amygdala activity)
  39. limbic system
    network of structures arranged around the top of the brain stem, carries out several functions in emotion, motivated behavior, learning
  40. limbic system structures
    • cingulate gyrus
    • septal nuclei
    • prefrontal coretx 
    • amygdala
    • hippocampus
    • parahipocampal gyrus 
    • mamillary body
    • hypothalamus
    • fornix
  41. anterior cingulate gyrus
    combine emotional, attentional and bodily information to bring about conscious emotional experience
  42. septal nuclei
    • stimulation produces a sense of pleasure, accompanied by sexual fantasies and arousal (rats self-stimulate)
    • EX: illness to seduction 
  43. hypothalamus
    primary control over the ANS; produces a variety of emotional expressions (racing heart, rage, fear, pleasure)
  44. amygdala
    • most associated with emotion (connected to frontal lobes)
    • recieves input from all senses
    • sends info to hypothalamus and brainstem
    • larger role in negative than positive emotions (anxiety reducing drugs act on amygdala) 
    • most important for the expression of emotional responses provoked by fear producing stimuli
  45. prefrontal cortex
    • specifying goals for emotion 
    • necessary for making judgments about behavior and its consequences 
    • abnormalities associated with depression and aggression
  46. prefrontal cortex damage
    • people are no longer affected by the neural machinery that underlies emotion 
    • critical emotion input for making social and personal decisions is likely to suffer (unable to restrain violent urges, depression, schizophrenia)
    • EX: gambling task (SCR)
  47. somatic/muscular components
    facial and behavioral responses
  48. autonomic and subcortical components
    • physciological elements
    • EX: heart rate, cortisol response, blushing
  49. prefrontal/amygdala components
    cognitive appraisals, feelings
  50. lateralization in emotion
    left frontal: positive emotions, damage (express anxiety & sadness)

    right front: negative emotions (more prominent overall) damage (trouble recognizing emotion in facial expressions and tons of voice, euphoric)
  51. drug
    substance that changes the body or its functioning
  52. agonist
    minics or enhances effects of a neurotransmitter
  53. antagonist
    • occupy the receptors, blacking access by the transmitter
    • reduce neurotransmitter production or release
  54. addiction
    • preoccupation with obtaining a drug
    • compulsive use of drug in spite of adverse consequences 
    • high tendency to relapse after quitting
    • ventral tegmental area is involved
  55. withdrawl
    • negative reaction that occurs when drug use is stopped
    • periventricular gray is involved
  56. tolerance
    • individual becomes less responsive to the drug
    • increasing amounts of drug to produce same results 
    • significant reason to overdose
  57. opiates
    • derived from the opium poppy
    • cause:
    • 1. analgesia, pain relief 
    • 2. hypnotic, sleep inducing effects 
    • 3. euphoria, strong feelings of happiness
  58. types of opiates
    morphine: treat pain of wounds, surgery and cancer 

    heroin: synthesized from morphine (sold OTC in late 1800's, now illegal in US)
  59. conditioned/learned tolerance
    • and association develops between tolerance and the environments of use
    • different setting, more likely to overdose
  60. opiods relationship to endorphin's
    • opiate drugs mimic endogenous (generated within the body) endorphin's 
    • produce additional positive effect by indirectly stimulating dopamine pathways (pain relief)
  61. naloxone
    an opiate antagonist that was use clinically to reverse opiate intoxication
  62. depressants
    • drugs that reduce NS activity (alcohol,barbiturates)
    • cause;
    • sedation
    • anxiety reduciton
    • hypnotic effects
  63. health effects of alcohol
    • acute effects; coma, death =shutting down brain stem
    • chronic effects; brain damage, Korsakoffs syndrome (vitamin b1 deficiency and memory loss), cirrhosis of the liver 
    • withdrawals; delirium tremens, hallucinations, delusions, confusion, seizures, possible death 
    • fetal alcohol syndrome
  64. alcohol and neurotransmitters
    • inhibits glutamate (excitatory transmitter) account for seizures during withdrawals
    • increases binding of GABA (inhibitory transmitter) 
    • combination of these 2 receptors: sedation, anxiety reduction, muscle relaxation, inhibition of cognitive and motor skills
  65. benzodiazepines
    • safer for treatment of anxiety and insomnia
    • act on GABA receptors
    • depressant effects due to changes in activity of hippocampus, brainstem, and cortex 
    • ex: valium, xanax, halcion, rohypnol 
  66. cocaine
    • blocks reuptake of dopamine and serotonin at synapses, potentiating their effect 
    • Causes; euphoria, decreased appetite, increased alertness, relieves fatigue
  67. cocain effect on executive funcitons
    • reduced PFC activity:
    • behavioral inhibition
    • decision making assessment of emotional value of stimuli 
    • one of the most addictive drugs due to intensity of initial euphoria 
  68. bath salts
    • increases dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine
    • similar to amphetamines (produce euphoria, increase confidence & concentration)
    • extremely addictive
  69. nicotine
    • primary psychoactive and addictive agent in tobacco
    • Stimulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    • activates muscles to cause twitching in PNS
    • alertness and faster response to stimulation in CNS 
    • causes; cancers, buergers disease, reduced birth weight
  70. caffeine
    • produces arousal, increased alertness and decreased sleepiness (80% of americans drink coffee)
    • blocks receptors for neuromodulator adensosine (increasing release of dopamine and acetylcholine) contributing to arousal
  71. psychedelics
    • accompanying cognitive or preceptual distortions
    • often refereed to as hallucinogenic (sensory perceptions and details are intensified)
  72. psychedelics: LSD
    • resembles serotonin and stimulates receptors
    • significantly alters perception, mood and psychological processes
    • used experimentally to treat alcoholics and psychiatric patients 
  73. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)
    • lessen the effects of the psychedelic LSD
    • EX: prozac and zoloft 
  74. ecstasy (MDMA)
    • primarily serotinergic (increased sensory perception and emotional responsiveness) 
    • higher doses can produce hallucinatory effects 
    • chronic use may cause impairment in serotnin functioning, leading to cognitive deficits (memory loss)
    • SSRI's can reduce the effects of MDMA
  75. marijuana
    • -Dried and crushed leaves and flowers of the Indians hemp plant, cannabis sativa 
    • -Major psychoactive ingredient is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), binds  to receptors for endogenous cannabiniods
    • -Mild to moderate analgesic effects and can be used to treat pain
    • -May cause hippocampus & aymgdala reductions
  76. Biological correlates of addiction
    • rats will self inject morphine into the ventral tegmental area which indicates the area is involved with addiction
    • however blocking opiate recpetors there doesn't produce withdrawal
  77. Biological correlates of withdrawal
    • rats will not press a lever to inject morphine into the periventricular gray, so it is NOT involved in addiction 
    • once rats are addicted, blocking opiate receptors in the preiventricular gray produces signs of withdrawal
  78. mesocorticolimbic dopamine system
    • major reward system
    • structures: nucleus accumbens, medial frorebrain bundle, ventral tegmental area (VTA)
    • all abused drugs increase dopamine in the VTA
    • dopamine system is implicated in the rewarding effects of drugs, food, sex and electrical stimulation (gambling)
  79. hearing receptor
    • cell specialized to respond to a particular form of energy (sound)
    • function is to convert that energy into a neural response
  80. adequate stimulus
    • energy for specialized receptor 
    • pattern of the info contained in the stimulus makes it meaningful
    • EX: pressing your eyeball and seeing a circular spot
  81. frequency
    • number of cycles or waves of alternating compression and decompression of the vibrating medium that occurs in a second (hertz) 
    • provides perception of pitch 
    • pure tone: one frequency 
    • complex sounds: composed of multiple frequencies
  82. frequency waves: high vs. low
  83. amplitude (intensity)
    • physical energy in a sound, loudness is the term for our experience of sound energy
    • most sensitive to 2000-4000 Hz (most speech)
  84. pure and complex sounds
    • A and B= pure tones (same frequency, different amplitudes)
    • C and D= pure tones (same frequency, different amplitudes)
    • A and C= same amplitudes, different frequencies 
    • B and D= same amplitudes, different frequencies 
    • E and F= complex sounds
  85. Pinna (outer ear)
    • captures sounds and amplifies by funneling into auditory canal
    • selects for sounds in front & to side of us, partially blocking behind
  86. inner ear structures
    • cochlea(where the auditory stimulus is converted to neural energy): 
    • stirrup
    • vestibular canal
    • tympanic canal 
    • cochlear canal
  87. cochlea in signal transduction
    stirrup send vibrations throughout the cochlea and to the organ of corti (sound analyzing structure)
  88. organ of corti
    • 4 rows of specialized cells called hair cells (receptors for auditory stimulation)
    • very sensitive cells (Vibration bends the hair cells, opening potassium and calcium channels)
    • inner hair cells (3500) receive ~95% of the auditory neurons and they provide the majority of the info about auditory stimulation 
    • outer hair cells (12000) amplify signal produced by weak sounds and provide adjustable frequency selectivity
  89. auditory pathway
    • auditory neurons (sound) ->
    • brain stem nuclei ->
    • inferior colliculi ->
    • medial geniculate nucleus of thalamus -> auditory cortex
  90. Dorsal streams in auditory processing
    • auditory coretx ->
    • parietal lobes (spatial location of sounds) ->
    • frontal lobes (directing eye movements & planning movements) 
    • auditory "where" system 
  91. Ventral streams in auditory processing
    • temporal lobe ->
    • frontal lobes (identifying sounds)
    • auditory "what" system 
  92. Cocktail effect
    • sort out meaningful sounds embedded in a confusing background of sounds 
    • selective attention enhances some sounds and suppresses others
    • occurs in the the ventral "what" area
  93. Localize sounds
    • Binaural cues permits us to locate sounds quickly and accurately
    • there is a difference in intensity when the sound is coming from one side of the head or the other 
    • there is also a difference in the time of arrival at the two ears (sound directly to the left or the right ear takes about 0.5 ms to travel the additional distance to the second ear)
  94. Broca’s aphasia
    • was discovered when paul broca studied a stroke patient with injury in the frontal area 
    • nonfluent speech, trouble finding words, articulation problems, lack of grammatical/function words 
    • ability to translate info into speech patterns is compromised (expressive aphasia)
  95. Wernicke’s aphasia
    • trouble understanding spoken and written language from damage to a portion of the posterior left temporal lobe 
    • as much difficulty producing language as understanding it 
    • speech is fluent but meaningless ("word salad")
  96. Wernicke-Geschwind model
    • effort to explain how broca's area and wernicke's area interact to produce language 
    • answering a spoken question (auditory coretx  -> wernicke's area -> broca's area -> communicates with the facial area of the motor cortex to produce speech
    • reading aloud ( angular gyrus -> wernicke's area -> broca's area)
  97. angular gyrus dysfunction
    • disruption of pathways in the angular gyrus
    • alexia: inability to read 
    • agraphia: inability to write
    • these pathways connect the visual projection area with the auditory and visual association areas
  98. right hemisphere’s role in language
    • contributes prosody to speech (use of tone, emphasis and rhythm to convey meaning
    • important in understanding info from language that is not specifically communicated by words (if the meaning is figurative rather than literal)
  99. wenicke-geschwind model structures
    • Broca’s area
    • facial motor area
    • primary auditory cortex
    • wernicke’s area
    • primary visual cortex
    • angular gyrus
  100. eye structures (6)
    • iris
    • pupil
    • cornea
    • lens
    • ciliary muscle 
    • sclera
    • retina
    • fovera
    • optic nerve
  101. anatomy of the eye
    • front: cornea -> iris -> pupil -> ciliary muscle -> lens
    • back: sclera-> retina -> fovea -> optic nerve
  102. Retina Photoreceptors
    • contain photopigments, which break down from light 
    • most active in darkness (sodium channels are open, receptor releases glutamate -> inhibits bipolar cells)
    • light hits photopigment (sodium channels close, decrease in glutamate release) 
    • Rods and Cones
  103. receptive field
    Area of retina that receives its input is the cell’s
  104. rods
    • contain rhodopsin
    • sensitive to light levels
    • function well in dim light
    • large receptive fields
    • most rods in periphery
  105. cones
    • contain iodopsin (requires bright light)
    • work in daylight and nonfunctional in dim light 
    • 3 types of iodopsin distinguish different wavelengths
    • small receptive field, results in good visual activity
    • most cones in fovea
  106. Optic Pathways to the brain
    optic nerve projects to the two hemispheres so that info from the right visual field goes to the left visual cortex and vice versa.
  107. retinal disparity
    • discrepancy in the location of an objects image on the two retina's 
    • distant objects cast image toward nasal side of retina
    • closer objects cast image toward temporal part of retina
  108. trichromatic theory
    • that just three color processes account for all the colors we are able to distinguish 
    • primary colors (red, green, blue)
    • EX: tv and computer screens are an application of trichromatic color mixing 
  109. opponent process theory
    • attempts to explain color vision in terms of opposing neural processes
    • complementary colors: colors that cancel each other out to produce gray or white 
  110. negative color aftereffect
    stare at a red stimulus for a minute and you will begin to see a green edge around it; then look at a white all or sheet of paper and you will see a green version of the object
  111. combined color theory
    • Hurvich and Jameson
    • 3 kinds of color receptors :red, green, blue
    • combine in opponent process fashion a the ganglion cells to produce 4 color processes (red, green, yellow, blue)
  112. true color blindness vs. partial color blindness
    • true color blindness: lack cones (poor visual activity, light sensitive)
    • partial color blindness: red-green blindness (cant distinguish the difference in colors), can't perceive blue
  113. form vision
    • detection of boundaries and features 
    • visual cortex contains a retinotopic map
  114. lateral inhibition (edge detection)
    • each neurons activity inhibits the activity of its neighbors and in turn its activity is inhibited by them 
    • sharpens the contrast between darker and lighter boundaries
  115. Ventral Streams of visual processing
    • color perception 
    • projects than to the inferior teporal cortex, providing object recognition 
    • visual "what" processor 
    • People with damage here can see objects, reach for them, & walk around them, but can’t identify them
  116. dorsal stream of visual processing
    • movement
    • projects then to the posterior parietal area, provides location of objects in space 
    • visual "where" processor
    • People with damage here can
    • identify objects, but they have trouble orienting their gaze toward objects