Chapter 4

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  1. What is Synesthesia?
    The perceptual experience of one sense that is brought about by another sense
  2. What is sensation?
    The act of using our sensory system to detect environmental stimulii
  3. What is perception?
    Recognizing and identifying sensory stimulus
  4. What do we need to do to the raw sensory data so that our brain can understand it?
    Sensory receptor cells and sensory transduction
  5. What is sensory receptor cells?
    specialized cells that convert a specific form of environmental stimuli into neural impulses
  6. What is sensory transduction?
    The process of converting a specific form of sensory data into a neural impulse that our brain can read
  7. What is absolute threshold?
    The smallest amount of a stimulus that one can detect
  8. What is Just Noticeable Difference?
    the minimal change in stimulus that can barely be detected
  9. What is Weber's Law?
    The just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity
  10. Bottom Up processing
    the raw sensory data is sent to the brain and your brain uses all of that data to build a perception (new info)
  11. Top down processing
    use previously learned information to help recognize and interpret the data coming into your brain
  12. Perceptual Set
    the readiness to interpret a certain stimulus in a certain way
  13. Steps to smell
    odorants > 5 mil receptors > molecule into neural impulses > olfactory bulb
  14. Steps to taste
    Papillae > chemicals into neural impulse > thalamus > cerebral cortex
  15. Five taste receptors
    Sweet, Sour, Salt, Umami, Bitter (SSSUB)
  16. Smell pathways converge
    Olfactory receptors > olfactory cortex > limbic system
  17. Taste pathways coverge
    Taste buds > gustatory cortex, samotosensory cortex > limbic system
  18. Tactile Senses
    Combo of skin senses
  19. Steps in touch
    Sensory neurons > pressure > spinal cord > thalamus > somatosensory cortex
  20. Gate control theory
    prevents messages from reaching part of the brain where they are perceived as pain
  21. Familial dysautonomia
    rare genetic condition associated with an inability to detect pain or temperature
  22. Phantom limb sensation
    tactile hallucinations of touch, pressure, vibration and pain in the body part that no long exists
  23. What is a mirror box?
    Mirror box experiment is when you draw the shape you see in the mirror onto your paper.
  24. What are soundwaves?
    Vibration of air
  25. Frequency
    the number of cycles per second in a wave (Hz), determines pitch
  26. Amplitude
    The magnitude (dB), determines loudness
  27. Steps to hearing
    Sound wave enters > eardrum > thin membrane moves > middle ear > oval window > creates vibrations that moves fluid to cochlea > basilar membrane > hair cells move > neural impulses to brain
  28. Place Theory
    Vibration of basilar membrane at different places results in different pitches/frequencies
  29. Frequency Theory
    Different sound frequencies are converted into different rates of action potentials or firing. High frequency sounds = rapid firing
  30. General Loudness
    louder sounds seem closer
  31. Loudness in each ear
    The ear closer to the sound hears a louder noise than the ear farther from the sound
  32. Timing
    sound waves will reach the ear closer to the source of the sound before they reach the ear farther away
  33. Hearing and the brain
    Cochlea > brainstem > thalamus > auditory cortex > auditory association areas in the cortex
  34. Tonotopic Map
    Information transmitted from different parts of the cochlea is projected to specific parts of the auditory cortex
  35. Steps in Vision
    Light waves > cornea > pupil > lens > retina > rods and cones transduce light waves into neural impulses > optic nerve >visual cortex
  36. Rods are used for...
    periphery and night vision, not as acute as cones, more rods than cones
  37. Cones are used for...
    Central and colour vision, very acute
  38. Visual acuity
    ability to see fine detail
  39. Accomodation
    the process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina
  40. myopia and hyperopia
    near, farsightedness
  41. Trichomatic Theory
    There are three different sensors for colour and each type responds to a different range of wavelengths of light.
  42. Opponent process theory
    more red weakens green, remove red, see green. The activation of one cone at retinal level inhibits another cone.
  43. Ganglion cells
    are arranged in opposing cells: red-green, yellow-blue, black-white
  44. Visual agnosia
    Damage to the "what" pathway, cannot recognize objects
  45. Prosopangnosia
    A form of visual agnosia in which people cannot recognize faces
  46. Hermi-neglect
    Damage to the "where pathway; people ignore one side of their visual field; only doing things to one side
  47. Top Down Processing
    organize small pieces of sensory experience into meaningful wholes
  48. Gestalt principles
    visual info is organized into coherent images, the whole is more than the sum of its parts
  49. Proximity
    group nearby figures together
  50. Similarity
    group similar figures together
  51. Binocular cues
    cues from both eyes
  52. Convergence
    the tendency of the eyes to move toward each other as we focus on objects up close
  53. Retinal disparity
    different images of objects are cast on the retinas of each eye
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Chapter 4
2013-11-05 03:15:45

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