Card Set Information
What is Synesthesia?
The perceptual experience of one sense that is brought about by another sense
What is sensation?
The act of using our sensory system to detect environmental stimulii
What is perception?
Recognizing and identifying sensory stimulus
What do we need to do to the raw sensory data so that our brain can understand it?
Sensory receptor cells and sensory transduction
What is sensory receptor cells?
specialized cells that convert a specific form of environmental stimuli into neural impulses
What is sensory transduction?
The process of converting a specific form of sensory data into a neural impulse that our brain can read
What is absolute threshold?
The smallest amount of a stimulus that one can detect
What is Just Noticeable Difference?
the minimal change in stimulus that can barely be detected
What is Weber's Law?
The just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity
Bottom Up processing
the raw sensory data is sent to the brain and your brain uses all of that data to build a perception (new info)
Top down processing
use previously learned information to help recognize and interpret the data coming into your brain
the readiness to interpret a certain stimulus in a certain way
Steps to smell
odorants > 5 mil receptors > molecule into neural impulses > olfactory bulb
Steps to taste
Papillae > chemicals into neural impulse > thalamus > cerebral cortex
Five taste receptors
Sweet, Sour, Salt, Umami, Bitter (SSSUB)
Smell pathways converge
Olfactory receptors > olfactory cortex > limbic system
Taste pathways coverge
Taste buds > gustatory cortex, samotosensory cortex > limbic system
Combo of skin senses
Steps in touch
Sensory neurons > pressure > spinal cord > thalamus > somatosensory cortex
Gate control theory
prevents messages from reaching part of the brain where they are perceived as pain
rare genetic condition associated with an inability to detect pain or temperature
Phantom limb sensation
tactile hallucinations of touch, pressure, vibration and pain in the body part that no long exists
What is a mirror box?
Mirror box experiment is when you draw the shape you see in the mirror onto your paper.
What are soundwaves?
Vibration of air
the number of cycles per second in a wave (Hz), determines pitch
The magnitude (dB), determines loudness
Steps to hearing
Sound wave enters > eardrum > thin membrane moves > middle ear > oval window > creates vibrations that moves fluid to cochlea > basilar membrane > hair cells move > neural impulses to brain
Vibration of basilar membrane at different places results in different pitches/frequencies
Different sound frequencies are converted into different rates of action potentials or firing. High frequency sounds = rapid firing
louder sounds seem closer
Loudness in each ear
The ear closer to the sound hears a louder noise than the ear farther from the sound
sound waves will reach the ear closer to the source of the sound before they reach the ear farther away
Hearing and the brain
Cochlea > brainstem > thalamus > auditory cortex > auditory association areas in the cortex
Information transmitted from different parts of the cochlea is projected to specific parts of the auditory cortex
Steps in Vision
Light waves > cornea > pupil > lens > retina > rods and cones transduce light waves into neural impulses > optic nerve >visual cortex
Rods are used for...
periphery and night vision, not as acute as cones, more rods than cones
Cones are used for...
Central and colour vision, very acute
ability to see fine detail
the process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina
myopia and hyperopia
There are three different sensors for colour and each type responds to a different range of wavelengths of light.
Opponent process theory
more red weakens green, remove red, see green. The activation of one cone at retinal level inhibits another cone.
are arranged in opposing cells: red-green, yellow-blue, black-white
Damage to the "what" pathway, cannot recognize objects
A form of visual agnosia in which people cannot recognize faces
Damage to the "where pathway; people ignore one side of their visual field; only doing things to one side
Top Down Processing
organize small pieces of sensory experience into meaningful wholes
visual info is organized into coherent images, the whole is more than the sum of its parts
group nearby figures together
group similar figures together
cues from both eyes
the tendency of the eyes to move toward each other as we focus on objects up close
different images of objects are cast on the retinas of each eye