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West Coast Forest: The ??? rainfall and ? climate encourage the growth of lush forests of ? fir, ? spruce, ? cedar and ? hemlock. Trees more than ? metre in diametere and over ?? meters high are common.
Heavy, mild, douglas, sitka, red, western, 1, 50.
Cordillera Vegetation: Cordillera vegetation varies greatly because temp. in the valleys are ??? than high in the mountains and precipitation is ??? on the windward side of the mountains than on the ?? side. Vegetation also changes as ??? increases. Forest of ??? trees grow on ??? slopes while the vegetation on the higher slopes is similar to that of the ???. Above the treeline, there are only meadows of ?? and ??.
Warmer, heavier, east, altitude, coniferous, lower, tundra, flowers, shrubs.
Grasslands: The climate here is too ? for most species of trees to survive. Some trees like aspen and willow are found in ?? valleys where more moisture is available. The deep, intertwined root systems of the grass forms a ??? which absorbs and stores ???. The grasslands consist of three sub regions. In the short grass prairie, ???-resistant short grasses, sagebrush, and cactus can survive. The long grass prairies is suitable for growing ??? and oil seeds. The parkland is a ??? zone of long grasses dotted with clumps of ??.
dry, river, sod mat, moisture, drought, sagebrush, cactus, grains, transition, trees.
Deciduous: This forest is found in _______ Ontario. Only smalled remnants of this forest remain since most of it has been cleared for ? and urban development. ??? trees like maple, hickory, ash and black ??? are found here due to the ???? winters and ? precipitation.
- Relatively mild.
Mixed Forest: This forest is a mixture of _________ and _________ trees, but little of this forest remains in the _______ part of the region because of ______, lumbering, urban development and __________. The mixed forest is a _______zone.
- coniferous and deciduous, southern.
- Farming, transportation routes.
Tundra: Small _______, ______ mosses, and ______ grow close to the ground. Tundra Plants bloom and mature ___________.
- shrubs, mosses and lichen.
- very quickly.
What's the active layer?
- Upper layer of permafrost that thaws only briefly in summertime.
- Very thick and mudlike.
Vegetation region that is a transition zone between Grassland and Boreal forest.
What are long grass prairies?
Type of vegetation in the Canadian prairie provinces where higher precipitation levels cause grasses to grow longer than in drier, short grass prairies.
What are short grass prairies?
Type of vegetation in the Canadian prairie provinces where very little precipitation causes grasses to be shorter than in slightly wetter, long-grass prairie areas.
What's a sod mat?
- Deep intertwined root systems of the grass. This sod mat absorbs and stores moisture and holds the soil in place.
- Used to build homes in pioneer times in prairies.
What are mixed trees?
Vegetation region that contains both coniferous and deciduous trees. It is a transition zone between the deciduous forest and the boreal forest.
What are deciduous trees?
Trees which sheds its leave annually in the fall (broad leaved trees)
What are coniferous trees?
Trees with cones and often needlelike leaves ~ evergreen
- Ground that does not completely thaw in summer.
- Difficult for buildings in the north.
What's a tree line?
- Boundary between the tundra and boreal forest zone. North of this line is too cold for trees to grow.
- Fairly stable, but has moved northward in past 30 years because of global warming.
What's a transitional zone?
- Area where the characteristics of one region gradually change into those of another.
- ex. Parkland.
What's a tundra?
Northern most vegetation region, found in areas too cold for trees to grow. Bshes, grasses, mosses and similar plants dominate. Ground-hugging plants, low to the ground.
What is natural vegetation?
Plants that grow away from human influence. Determined by climate and temperature.
What are the two processes that work in soil? And describe them.
- 1. Leeching; occurs in high areas of high ppt. and low evap.
- Not good. Most of the soluble minerals needed are out of reach of the plant roots.
- 2. Capillary Action (calcification); occurs in areas of low ppt. and high evap.
- Plants roots can easily reach minerals.
- Good quality.
- Grasses die every year which adds organic matter to the soil.
Describe all three textures of soil.
- 1. sandy, coarse -- while watering plants, water runs right through and plants can dry up.
- 2. muddy, fine -- lots of minerals, but clumps together when wet.
- 3. loam, best -- mix of both fine and sandy sizes
Describe the C Horizon in soil.
- Parent rock
- Weathered to give minerals.
Describe the B Horizon in soil.
- medium colour (brown)
- mixture of minerals from rocks and humus.
Describe the A Horizon in soil.
- Dark in colour (black)
- most organic matter
- top soil
What are the different horizons in soil?
- A Horizon
- B Horizon
- C Horizon
What is soil determined by?
- Climate (temp. of ppt.)
- Vegetation (type is determined by temp. of ppt.)
What are soils a combination of?
- 1. minerals from parental rocks or glacial till.
- 2. organic matter, humus and dead plants and animals.
- 3. Air from worm holes or animals digging.
- 4. Water, which is important in the breakdown of soil because it dissolves materials.
- Air and Water aid in organic breakdown.
What proof is there that Fiords formed?
- 1. U-shaped valley
- 2. Steep valley walls.
- 3. Hanging valley or waterfall
- 4. Terminal moraine in sea.
How do Fiords form?
- Before: we have a V-shaped valley with a river that empties into the sea.
- During Glaciation: the glacier occupies the river valley-it carves out a U-shaped valley to a depth below SL.
- After: after the glacier retreats, the valley fills with water and the tributary becomes a "hanging valley"-if the water is still there, it becomes a waterfall.
What are Fiords?
Long, narrow inlets to the see. They have very steep sides.
Describe how glaciers stay stationary.
When the rate of accumulation is equal to the rate of melt (stays the same size).
Describe how glaciers retreat.
When rate of accumulation is less than rate of melt (moves northward).
Describe how glaciers advance.
When the rate of accumulation is greater than rate of melt (moves southward)
Describe the movement of glaciers.
The advance or retreat of a glacier is determined by the balance between ice build-up (rate of accumulation, winter) and ice melt (rate of melt, summer). In all cases, the ice continues to move outward from the zone of accumulation.
What kind of work do glaciers do?
- Three jobs:
- 1. Erosion, causing U and V shaped valleys.
- 2. Transportation, causing erratics
- 3. Deposition, causing drumlins, moraines, eskers and till.
What types of glaciers can be found today?
- There are 2 types of glaciers:
- 1. Alpine Glaciers: develop in mountainous regions and move down valleys from high elevations to low elevations under the force of gravity.
- 2. Continental Glaciers: cover huge areas like Greenland and Antarctica and move under their own weight.
How do glaciers develop?
When the earth's climate cools and the snow that falls each winter does not completely melt in the summer. After getting thicker and thicker, the tremendous weight of the snow on top causes the bottom layers to turn to ice.
What were the Ice Ages?
- When larges areas of the world were covered in glacial ice. During the past 2-3 millions years, glaciers advanced and retreated at least 4 times.
- The last Ice Age ended about 6000 years ago.
Where do glaciers occur?
Places of high latitudes (polar regions) and high altitudes (mountain).
What is a glacier?
A large moving mass of ice.
Describe rocks deposited by streams.
Rounded edges, deposited according to weight.
Describe rocks deposited by glaciers.
- Angular, unsorted.
- Because glaciers just pick up rocks and drops them when melted.
What's Isostatic Rebound?
The earth rebounds after a heavy weight-such as a glacier or mountain) is removed. Rebounds approx. 1-2cm/100years.
What are eskers?
A long ridge of material deposited by a meltwater stream flowing beneath a glacier (ones runs along highway 3)
What are drumlins?
- Geological feature evident today on Canada's landscape, formed by ice sheets. They are an egg-shaped hill with a steep side of the wide end and a soft slope at the other end.
- Large one in Peterborough Ontario.
What are erratics?
Rocks picked up by the ice, carried along and deposited many kilometres away; easily identified because its composition is different from the bedrock of the region.
What's a moraine?
- Material deposited by a glacier, often in the form of hills.
- There are three types:
- 1. Terminal Moraine: formed at the farther point/position reached by a glacier. Indicates how far a glacier advanced. END POINT.
- 2. Lateral Moraine: material carried by the sides of the glacier. SIDE.
- 3. Medial Moraine: when two lateral moraines meet up, they become a medial moraine. MIDDLE.
Eroded material deposited directly by the ice of a glacier, usually a mixture of materials of all sizes.