Blood

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michaelirby98
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245015
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Blood
Updated:
2013-11-12 17:53:23
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Blood
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Blood
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  1. Blood
    • Blood is CT
    • Plasma 
    • 55% plasma; 45% Formed elements (cells)
    • Hemopoiesis
  2. Plasma
    • Liquid Matrix of blood
    • 92% water; 7% proteins
    • 1% Ions, nutrients, hormones, gases, and wastes, ect
  3. Hemopoiesis
    Stem cells in bone marrow give rise to formed elements 

    aka Production of blood cells and platelets; which occur in bone marrow
  4. Formed elements
    • Erythrocytes (RBCs)
    • Leukocytes (WBCs)
    • Platelets (Thrombocytes)
  5. Blood pH
    7.35 to 7.45
  6. Avg blood Vol
    5 Liters
  7. Blood Functions
    • Transportation- Gases, Nutrients, Hormones, Cellular Wastes)
    • Regulation - Body Temperature, pH, fluid balance of blood & interstitial fluid
    • Protection against Pathogens & Toxins
  8. 3 Plasma Proteins
    • Albumins- Most abundant, Osmotic Pressure
    • Globulins- Antibodies- Lipoproproteins for transport
    • Fibrinogen- Clotting
  9. Hemoglobin
    • Red Pigments in RBCs
    • Contains 4 Heme
    • Groups Fe++
    • Reversibly binds oxygen
    • In High [02], Binds 0> OxyHb (bright Red)
    • In Low [02], Releases 02 > DeoxyHb (Darker)
    • C02 binds to globin protions
  10. Erythrocytes
    • Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
    • Most Abundant blood "cell"
    • Anucleate when mature (& no organelles)
    • Bioconcave Discs (shaped like LifeSaver)
    • Shape increases surface area/volume ratio
    • Transports Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide
  11. Erythrocytes pt 2
    • 4.2 - 6.2 Million/mm3
    • Unable to divide, grow, or synthesize proteins 
    • Wear out in 120 days
    • Removed by phagocytes in spleen & liver
  12. Agglutination
    RBC clumping due to Antigen-Antibody Reaction
  13. ABO blood typing is based off..
    • A Antigen
    • B Antigen 
    • And the 4 blood types it makes
  14. Type A blood
    Contains A Antigen and Anti - B Antibodies
  15. Type B blood
    Contains B Antigen and Anti-A Antibodies
  16. Type AB blood
    • Contains both A&B Antigen and NO Antibodies
    • (Universal Receiver) 
  17. Type O blood
    • Contains neither Antigen
    • Also contain Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies 
    • (Universal Donor) 
  18. Antibodies
    • In blood plasma 
    • Appear Spontaneously after birth
    • Produced in response to foreign Antigen 
    • Anti-A
    • Anti-B
  19. Rh Typing
    • Antigen D/ Rh Factor
    • If RBC surface contains Antigen D its Rh+
    • If no Antigen D its Rh-
  20. Hemolytic Disease of Newborn (HDN)
    • AKA Erythroblastosis Fetalis 
    • Occurs when Rh- mother is pregnant with Rh+ fetus 
    • Mixing of maternal and fetal blood 
    • Mom then produces Anti-Rh
    • Results in fetal RBC destruction
  21. Rhogam
    Shot that prevents mom from producing anti-Rh antibodies during pregnancy
  22. Leukocytes
    • White Blood Cells (WBC)
    • Protective functions
    • Defend against microbes through phagocytosis
    • Use blood for transport, but occur mostly outside circ. system in tissues
  23. 5 types of leukocytes
    • Neutrophil (never)
    • Lymphocytes (let)
    • Monocytes (monkeys)
    • Eosinophil (eat)
    • Basophil (bananas) 

    • From most common to least common circulating blood
  24. Monocytes
    • 3rd most common circulating WBC
    • Kidney-shaped nucleus 
    • Abundant cytoplasm
    • Largest Leukocyte 
    • Differentiate into phagocytic macrophages
  25. Lymphocytes
    • 2nd most common circulating WBC
    • Large, spherical nucleus, little cytoplasm
    • Immune response - produce antibodies
  26. Basophils
    • Least common circulating WBC
    • Bilobed nucleus 
    • Blue-violet granules 
    • Granules contain histamine& herparin
    • Intensify inflammation
  27. Eosinophils
    • 4th most common circulating WBC
    • Bilobed nucleus 
    • reddish - orange granules 
    • Phagocytic (allergies and parasitic infections)
  28. Neutrophils (PMN)
    • Most common circulating WBC
    • Granulocytes 
    • 65% of circulating WBCs
    • Nucleus has 2-5 lobes 
    • Phagocytic (Bacterial infections)
  29. Leukopenia
    • Abnormally low leukocyte count 
    • Caused by: Infection, radiation, shock, chemotherpeutic agents (any chemical being taken)
  30. Leukocytosis
    • High leukocyte count
    • Normal, protective response to:
    • -invading microbes (infection)
    • -strenuous exercise 
    • -surgery & anesthesia
  31. Defend against microbes through phagocytosis or immune response
    Leukocytes (WBCs)
  32. Emigration
    • Process of leukocytes (WBCs) leaving the blood stream 
    • Done by squeezing through walls of small blood vessels (precapillary vessels)
  33. Chemotaxis
    • Leukocytes attraction to chemicals
    • Chemicals associated with inflammation or infections
  34. Ameboid Movement
    • Leukocytes ability to move alone
    • Outside bloodstream 
    • (The BLOOB)
  35. Two classes of leukocytes
    • Granulocytes (granules)
    • Agranulocytes (no apparent granules)
    • -Largest and smallest WBC
  36. Normal WBC count
    5,000 to 10,000/mm3
  37. Platelets
    • Cellular fragments from Megakaryocytes (reside in bone marrow)
    • Out number WBC but less than RBC
    • 120,00 - 300,000/mm3
    • Active in Hemostasis (Stoppage of bleeding)
    • Contain Myofiliments; able to contract 
    • -Actin & Myosin
  38. Thrombus
    • Abnormal Clot Formation
    • Clot formed in uninjured vessel
  39. Embolus
    • Abnormal Clot Formation 
    • Thrombus, broken loose & moved
    • -Cause Pulmonary Embolism 
    • -Coronary Embolism
  40. Embolism
    Loose thrombus that has been moved throughout the body
  41. Pulmonary Embolism
    Lung clot that was formed elsewhere
  42. Coronary Embolism
    Clot in the coronary vessel that was formed elsewhere
  43. Hemopoiesis
    • Process of blood cell formation 
    • Occurs in Yolk Sac (embryo)
    • Liver & Spleen (second trimester)
    • Red Bone Marrow (3rd trimester through adulthood)
  44. Hemocytoblasts (stem cells)
    • Divide and give rise to:
    • Lymphiod (stem cell) > Lymphocytes (Formed element)
    • Myeloid (stem cell) > Erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, all other types of leukocytes (formed elements)
  45. Erythropoiesis
    • Production of Erythropoiesis (RBCs)
    • 2-3 million/second
    • Stimulated by Erythropoietin (hormone)
  46. Erythropoietin
    • Hormone produced in the kidneys 
    • Stimulates Erythropoiesis
  47. Process of Erythropoiesis
    • Size reduction of myeloid stem cell into Progenitor cell > Proerythroblast >Erythroblast (forms hemoglobin) > Normoblast (ejects nucleus)
    • Enters blood stream as reticulocyte (only ribosome)
    • Matures into erythrocytes (NO organelles)
  48. Leukopoiesis
    • Formation of all types of leukocytes 
    • Involves myeloid or lymphoid stell cells 
    • Produced by one of three processes
    • -Granulocyte maturation
    • -Monocyte maturation
    • -Lymphocyte maturation
  49. Granulocyte Maturation
    • Process of producing all 3 granulocytes: 
    • Neutrophil 
    • Eosinophil
    • Basophil
    • (From Myeloid Stem Cell)
  50. Monocyte Maturation
    • Process of producing Monocytes
    • (From Myeloid Stem Cell)
  51. Lymphocyte Maturation 
    • Process of producing lymphocytes 
    • (From Lymphoid stem cell)

  52. Colony-Stimulating Factors (CSFs)
    Chemicals that stimulate leukopoiesis
  53. Thrombopoiesis
    • Formation of platelets 
    • Stimulated by Thrombopoietin 
    • Megakaryoblast matures into megakaryocyte 
    • Megakaryocytes shed thousand of platelets 
    • (From Myeloid Stem Cell)

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