chapter 3 theory

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  1. the musculoskeletal system is made up of these three interrelated parts
    • bones
    • joints
    • muscles
  2. bones are connected to one another by fibrous bands of tissue called
  3. muscles are attached to the bone by bands of tissue called
  4. the tough fibrous covering of the muscles (and some nerves and blood vessels) is called
  5. skeletal system is composed of these two types of connective tissue
    • cartlilage
    • bone
  6. cartilage and bone are both composed out of a structural protien called
  7. is composed of collagen and cartilage cells (chondrocytes)
  8. forms parts of the ears and nose, along with temporary bones in the fetal skeleton
    elastic cartilage
  9. found in the discs between the backbones and pubic bones in the pelvis
  10. forms the attachements of the ribs to the breastbone (costochondrial cartilage) and part of the voicebox, windpipe, and bronchi
    hyaline cartilage
  11. ***hyaline cartilage that covers the ends of the long bones and serves to cushion and protect the joints is called
    ***articular cartilage
  12. the covering of the elastic and hyaline cartilage (with the exception of articular cartilage) is called
  13. infexible structures
    bone (osseous tissue)
  14. two types of bone/osseous tissue
    • cortical (compact)
    • cancellous (spongy or trabecular)
  15. dense, stronger, outer segment of bones
    cortical bone
  16. more open, weaker part of bones
    cancellous bone
  17. ***the musculoskeletal system structures (5 answers)
    • act as a framework for the organ systems
    • protect many of the body's organs
    • provide the organism with the ability to move
    • provide formation of blood cells
    • act as storage for mineral salts (calcium and phosphorus) and fat cells
  18. during this process, connective tissues are turned into osteoblasts
  19. immature cells that build bone
  20. mature bone cells
  21. cells that break down bone to release the calcium salts as needed by the body
  22. formed by a fibrous protein substance that provides a framework in which the mineral salts (calcium, phosphate, and hydroxide) are deposited
    a bone's matrix
  23. the cylindrical units within the harder, outer cortical bone that are built up in layers by this deposition process with a mature osteoblast, now called osteocyte, in it's middle
  24. meaning "little plate"
  25. located longitudinally to the long axis of the bone
    Haversian canals
  26. join each of the Haversian canals in a horizontal fashion
    Volkman canals
  27. a normal skeleton is composed of ___ bones
  28. ***the 2 parts the skeleton itself can be divided into
    • axial skeleton
    • appendicular skeleton
  29. *** includes skull, vertebrae and rib cage
    ***axial skeleton
  30. ***includes the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and the upper and lower extremeties
    ***appendicular skeleton
  31. connects the arms to the axial skeleton with the shoulder blades and collarbones
    shoulder girdle
  32. provides attachment for the leg with its two pelvic bones
    pelvic girdle
  33. head and facial bones are:
    • skull
    • facial bones
    • hyoid bone
  34. upper bones are:
    • left and right upper extremeties
    • left and right glenoid cavity
    • scapula
    • clavicle
    • rib
    • sternum
    • cervical and thoracic vertebrae
  35. lower bones are:
    • left and right lower extremeties
    • left and right pelvic bones (ilium, ischium, pubis)
    • acetabula
    • lumbar vertebrae
    • sacrum
    • coccyx
  36. the shaft of the long bone
  37. ***the ends of the long bone

    the end closer to the trunk is proximal epiphysis while the one farther away is the distal epiphysis
  38. the site of growth for bone lengthening. this plate is "sealed" when growth stops (age 18-20)
    epiphyseal plate, physis or growth plate
  39. ***the tissue that surrounds the bones
  40. specialized cells in bones  to provide the sensation of pain when damage occurs
  41. ***the inner lining of the center of the bones
  42. two types of bone marrow in the medullary cavities.
    • red bone marrow - produces blood cells
    • yellow bone marrow - stores fat
  43. ***the skull is made up of two parts:
    • cranium -encloses and protects the brain
    • facial bones
  44. parts of the body where two or more bones of the skeleton join
  45. ***immovable joints held together by fibrous cartilaginous tissue

    No ROM
  46. ***joints joined together by cartilage that are slightly movable (vertebrae, pubic bone)

    limited ROM
  47. ***joints that have free movement. (ball and socket joints and hinge joints)
    ***diarthroses/ synovial joints

    full ROM
  48. most complex of the joints
    synovial joints
  49. sacs of fluid that are located between the bones of the joint and the tendons that hold the muscles in place
  50. consist of crescent-shaped cartilage in the knee joint that additionally cushion the joint
  51. tissue that is composed of cells with the ability to contract and relax
  52. ***three different functions of muscles in the human body
    • skeletal muscle
    • smooth/visceral muscle
    • heart muscle
  53. ***allows the skeleton to move voluntarily
    ***skeletal muscle
  54. ***responsible for involuntary movement of the organs
    ***smooth muscle
  55. ***pumps blood to the circulatory system
    ***heart muscle
  56. ***three types of muscles
    • agonist muscle
    • antagonist muscle
    • synergist muscle
  57. ***muscle which are the primary movers
    ***agonist muscles
  58. ***have the opposite action of the agonists muscles (contract when agonists relax and relax when agonists contract
    ***antagonist muscles
  59. ***groups of  muscles that contract together to accomplish the same body movement
    ***synergist muscles
  60. ***strong, broad, flat sheet of fibrous connective tissue that serves as a tendon. often merge with other tendons to attach muscle to bone
  61. ***have a characteristic membranous lining and are the covering of certain tendons
    ***tendon sheaths
  62. ***tough outer covering of both the muscles and the tendons
  63. ***fracture where broken bone is still in alignment
    ***nondisplaced fracture
  64. ***ends of fractured bones that are not in alignment
    ***displaced fracture
  65. ***traumatic injury to a joint involving the ligaments. swelling, pain, and discoloration of the skin may be present
  66. ***lesser injury that a sprain, usually described as overuse or overstretching of a muscle or tendon
  67. ***bone that is completely out of its place in a joint
  68. ***bone partially out of the joint
  69. ***if a bone does not mend a realign correctly

    if no healing takes place it is called a nonunion
  70. methods of fixation and alignment are
    • external fixation (EF)
    • internal fixation (IF)
    • reduction/manipulation
  71. ***noninvasive repositioning and stabilization of broken bonesin which no opening is made in the skin
    ***external fixation
  72. ***reposition and stabilization of broken bones in their correct position using pins, screws, plates,  and so on, which are fastened to the bones to maintain correct alignment
    ***internal fixation
  73. ***alignment and immobilization of the ends of a broken bone

    • OR requires incision of the skin
    • CR does not require incision
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chapter 3 theory
2013-11-09 19:05:16
icd 10

chapter 3
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