Chapter 5: FRAMES

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  1. The Boxing System
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  2. Chassis
    frame front,
  3. Temples
    temple arms or arms
  4. bridge
    area between the two eyewires
  5. Nose pads
    small pads designed to contact the nose and hold the frame up off the nose and away from the face.
  6. Guard arms
    small wire arms that actually hold the nose pad in place
  7. Eyewire
    the area of the frame that actually surrounds the lens and holds the lens in place
  8. End piece
    the area of the chassis that meets the temple or the point where the temple attaches to the chassis
  9. Hinge
    the point where the temple is connected to the chassis. It allows the temple to fold in and out
  10. Monel
    basic nickel-based metal frames. These are inexpensive and make up the bulk of all low and mid-range metal frames made today.

    • Advantages of Monel-based frames:
    • • Easy to adjust
    • • Hold adjustments well
    • • Very strong
    • • Relatively light in weight
    • • Can have a wide range of colors and plating like bright gold and bright silver
    • • Economical
    • • Can be repaired by solder.
    • Disadvantages of Monel -based frames:
    • • Outermost plating (the layer that touches the skin) can wear off, which can cause skin allergies or reaction to nickel in Monel metal
    • • Prone to breaking after repeated bending
    • • Once plating is worn away, metal may erode quickly and create abrasive areas and sharp edges
    • • Monel is the heaviest of metal frame materials in use.
  11. Stainless steel
    • Advantages of stainless steel frames:
    • • Light in weight because of reduced material
    • • Very strong
    • • Very little chance of allergic reaction to metal
    • • Holds color well
    • • Attractive appearance
    • • Holds adjustments very well.

    • Disadvantages of stainless steel frames:
    • • Limited range of colors
    • • Colors tend to be matte in finish
    • • Temples rarely made in any shape other than “paper clip”
    • • Larger frames can become heavy.
  12. Titanium
    • Advantages of titanium frames:
    • • Titanium is hypo-allergenic: it will not cause reactions with skin
    • • It is extremely lightweight
    • • It is 100% corrosion proof
    • • Extremely durable. A well-made titanium frame can last for years • Very strong.

    • Disadvantages of titanium frames:
    • • Titanium is not easy to manufacturer, and not all companies provide the same quality of production
    • • Frames can be legally labeled 100% titanium yet contain other metals
    • • Frame lines may be inconsistent in their quality. Just because a frame is ‘titanium’ does not mean it is a quality product.
    • • Adjustments can be tricky. If a frame is 100% titanium, it can break easily at weld points if not well made
    • • A well-made titanium frame can last for years which might discourage repeat sales
  13. Flexible or memory metals
    • Advantages of flex metal frames:
    • • Bend instead of break
    • • Return to original shape after being bent
    • • Have spring-like quality that helps hold glasses in place on head
    • • Lightweight.

    • Disadvantages of flexible metal frames:
    • • If not well designed with adjustment points built in, frames may be impossible to adjust
    • • You may find fitting difficult on people with unusual or very asymmetrical face shapes
    • • Some patients cannot adapt to a flexible frame; they actually need to feel the frame on their nose!
    • • People (especially children) may incorrectly assume that the frame is indestructible, or that it can be bent repeatedly without damage
  14. Plastic
    • Advantages of Zyl frames:
    • • Light in weight
    • • Huge range of colors
    • • Strong
    • • Fairly easy to adjust
    • • Can be molded in any shape and size

    • Disadvantages of Zyl frames:
    • • Can lose shape and even be ruined by high heat (dashboard of car in direct sun)
    • • Will discolor over time
    • • Will dry out and become brittle over time
    • • Will stretch out and lose fit in hot weather.
  15. Carbon
    These were lightweight and strong but nearly impossible to adjust and never really took any substantial market.
  16. Nylon
    These were strong but quite heavy and also nearly impossible to adjust.
  17. Rubber
    Still found in swim goggles and as parts of frames but not used for complete chassis
  18. Optyl
    This is one of the few materials that enjoyed a substantial market share for several years. Frames made of Optyl will usually be marked OPT or Optyl on their temple.
  19. Polycarbonate
    Strong and extremely lightweight it is used in sport safety eyewear.
  20. Kevlar
    These were lightweight and strong but nearly impossible to adjust and never really took any substantial market
  21. Develop the habit of performing these checks now, and remember the rule of three:
    • One -- Width
    • Two -- Nose
    • Three -- Temple length
  22. Four Point Touch
    frame is placed on a flat surface upside down, both eye wires and the crest of each temple should rest on the surface.
  23. X-ing
  24. Skewed out of coplanar alignment
  25. OD skewed higher than OS
  26. Improper temple fold alignment
  27. Proper temple fold alignment
    When the temples are closed, they should overlap and be near parallel with the top of the frame.
  28. Fitting Triangle
    the frame is put on the patient’s face, it touches at three points: The junction of each ear and the skull and the bridge of the patient’s nose.
  29. Temple Fit
    Ideally, the temples should go straight back, touching the sides of the patient’s head
  30. Pantoscopic Tilt
    • \
    • Ideally, for good cosmetics and optics, there should be about 8 - 10 degrees of pantoscopic tilt for most frames.
  31. Retroscopic tilt
  32. Orthoscopic tilt
  33. Face form
    There should also be slight positive face form, particularly if the patient’s PD is narrower than the frame PD (A measurement + dbl), the most common situation
  34. Fitting the bridge
    Care should be taken during frame selection to ensure a proper fit. The sides of the bridge should come in contact with the length of the nose. A frame that has a wider bridge than the patient’s nose rests on the top of the nose and will be uncomfortable and will slip.
  35. Adjustable nose pads
    should be adjusted so the frame sits comfortably on the patient’s bridge with the pupils falling slightly above the vertical center of the frame.
  36. nose pads Width
    The horizontal distance between the pads when viewed from the front.
  37. nose pads Frontal angle
    The angle of the pads when viewed from the front of the frame. The tops of the pads should be slightly closer together than the bottoms of the pad following the contours of the nose as it gets wider from top to bottom.
  38. nose pads Splay angle
    The angle of the pads when viewed from the top of the frame. The front edges of the pads should be closer together than the back edges.
  39. nose pads Vertical angle
    The angle of the pads when viewed from the side of the frame. Since most frames will have some amount of pantoscopic tilt, the bottoms of the pads should be slightly closer to the frame front than the tops.
  40. cal heigh
    the nose pads relative to the vertical center of the frame. This is a much more difficult adjustment and should only be used to raise or lower multifocal segments and or optical center heights.
  41. distance between the nose pads
    and the frame front. Occasionally this distance should be decreased to optimize the keyhole effect and decrease peripheral distortions.
  42. Fitting around the ears
    When fitting temples, it is necessary to touch the patient’s face and ears. The temple bend should occur just behind the junction of the top of the ear and the skull.
  43. Left lens is higher
    Bend left temple up, or right temple down.
  44. Right lens is higher
    Bend right temple up, or left temple down.
  45. Left lens is lower
    Bend left temple down, or right temple up.
  46. Right lens is lower
    Bend right temple down, or left temple up
  47. Left lens is farther in
    Bend left endpiece in or right endpiece out.
  48. Left lens is farther out
    Bend left endpiece out or right endpiece in.
  49. Right lens is farther in
    Bend right endpiece in or left endpiece out.
  50. Right lens is farther out
    Bend right endpiece out or left endpiece in.
  51. Increase pantoscopic angle
    Bend both temples, or endpieces down.
  52. Decrease pantoscopic angle
    Bend both temples, or endpieces up.
  53. simple method to remember these rules
    • “in with in, out with out, up with up, down with down.”
    • If a lens is in, bend the temple in. If a lens is out, bend the temple out. If a lens is up, bend the temple up. If a lens is down, bend the temple down.
  54. “My frames slip down my nose.”
    • Temples may be too wide – adjust temple angle
    • Temples may be too short of long or the bend behind the ears may be too loose or too tight – check for proper adjustment
    • A fit that is too tight will make the temples ride up and then slip down
    • Temples may not follow the contour of the mastoid
    • Nose pad fit may need adjustment
    • Hard or slick nose pads may cause slippage. Change to silicone pads
  55. “My nose hurts.”
    • Pads may be too close together
    • Pad angles may need adjustment
    • Unequal temple spread angles may put pressure on one side of nose
    • Hard pads can be replaced with soft silicone pads
    • Larger pads can distribute weight better
  56. “My ears hurt.”
    • Temples bend may be bent too soon
    • Temple bend angle is too steep putting pressure on soft tissue on back of ear
    • Unequal temple spread angles puts pressure on one ear
    • Temple touches only one point concentrating pressure – contour temple curve
    • Temple tips may be angled too much putting pressure on mastoid
  57. “My glasses sit too high.”
    • Widen the distance between the nose pads
    • Bend the nose pad arms up
  58. “My glasses sit too low.”
    • Narrow the distance between the nose pads
    • Bend the nose pad arms down
  59. “My eyelashes touch the lenses.”
    • Increase pantoscopic tilt
    • Bring nose pads closer together
    • Increase distance between nose pads and frame front
  60. “My frames rest on my cheeks.”
    • Decrease pantoscopic tilt
    • Bring nose pads closer together
    • Increase distance between nose pads and frame front
  61. “My frames leave creases on the sides of my head.”
    • Widen temple spread angle
    • Slightly bow temples
Card Set:
Chapter 5: FRAMES
2013-11-05 00:09:41



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