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2010-06-22 17:40:24
Comm1210 Exam2

Terms for the 2nd exam of Comm1210
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  1. Accommodation (or Communication Accommodation Theory)
    The constant movement toward or away from others by changing your communicative behavior (2 types of accommodation strategies: Convergence and Divergence)
  2. Convergence
    Adapting your communication behavior to the other.
  3. Divergence
    Accenting the differences between yourself and the other through communication
  4. Maintenance
    Persisting in your original communication style regardless of the communication behavior of the other; similar to divergence; underaccommodation
  5. Overaccommodation
    • Demeaning or patronizing talk; excessive concern paid to
    • vocal clarity or amplitude, message simplification, or repetition
  6. Social Identity
    Group memberships and social categories that we use to define who we are
  7. Initial Orientation (or Social Identity Theory):
    • A communicator's predisposition to focus on wither their individual identity or their group identity during conversation.
    • (If an individual first aligns with their group identity (Tajfel and Turner) their accommodation patterns will be more divergent as they distinguish themselves as group members first.)
  8. Norms
    Expectations about behavior that members of a community feel should (or should not) occur in particular situations
  9. Attribution Theory
    • The perceptual process by which we observe what people do and then try to figure out their intent or disposition.
    • (Based on how we attribute the speech of another, we will then converge or diverge accordingly in our accommodation.)
  10. Five factors that influence the likelihood of initial orientation being group identification
    • -Collectivistic Cultural Context
    • -Distressing history of interaction
    • -Stereotypes
    • -Norms for treatment of groups
    • -High group solidarity/High group dependence
  11. Why is Identity important?
    Because individuals bring their self-images or identities into each communicative encounter, every communication interaction is affected by their identities.
  12. Identity
    • Who a person is, composed of individual and social categories a person identifies with, as well as the categories that others identify with that person.
    • Primary Identities--Most consistent (ethnicity)
    • Secondary Identities--More fluid and situational (occupation)
  13. How is Identity developed? (Three communication processes)
    • Process 1: Reflected Appraisals
    • Process 2: Social Comparisons
    • Process 3: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
  14. Self-Concept
    The Understanding of one's unique characteristics as well as the similarities to, and differences from others
  15. Self-Esteem
    • Part of one's self-concept; arises out of how one perceives and interprets themselves.
    • (In certain situations one can be confident, while in others he is not--> such as speaking in front of a class and speaking in front of an auditorium.)
  16. Process 1: Reflected Appraisals
    • People's self-images arise primarily from the ways that others view them and from the many messages they have received from others about who they are.
    • Otherwise known as Looking Glass Self
    • Influenced by particular and generalized others (Mead)
  17. Process 2: Social Comparisons
    • We compare ourselves to others to determine how we measure up, and through this social comparison, we evaluate ourselves.
    • We define how desirable our own characteristics are by exploring others (teens, peer-pressure, wanting to be popular)
  18. Process 3: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
    • When an individual expects something to occur, the expectation increases the likelihood that it will.
    • Believing in a particular outcome influences people to act and communicate in ways that make that outcome more likely.
  19. Dimensions of Identity
    • Racial Identity
    • National Identity-citizenship
    • Ethnic Identity--tribal, linguistic (Latino)
    • Gender Identity--acting masculine/feminine
    • Sexual Identity--sexual preference/orientation
    • Age Identity
    • Social Class Identity
    • Religious Identity.
  20. The Performance of Identity
    • The process or means by which we show the world who we think we are. (We are actors who adapt to the different situations)
    • There are different dimensions of identity that we regularly perform
    • If we fail to perform these identities in the appropriate way we become open to institutional and social disciplining.
  21. Mediation
    Peaceful third party intervention
  22. Intercultural communication
    Communication that occurs in interactions between people who are culturally different
  23. Culture
    Learned patterns of perceptions, values, and behaviors shared by a group of people
  24. Heterogeneous
  25. Border Dwellers
    People who live between cultures and often experience contradictory cultural patterns
  26. Three types of Intercultural Interactions
    • * Border Dwellers through Travel
    • o Depending on what type of traveler they are, they experience a variety of cultural challenges.
    • * Border Dwellers through Socialization
    • o Composed of people who grow up living on the borders between cultural groups. I.e. Immigrants in the U.S.
    • * Border Dwellers through Relationships
    • o People who live on cultural borders because they have intimate partners whose background differs from their own. I.e. Interracial or interethnic marriages
  27. Voluntary Short-Term Travelers
    People who are border dwellers by choice and for a limited time, such as study-abroad students or corporate personnel
  28. Voluntary Long-Term Travelers
    People who are border dwellers by choice and for an extended time, such as immigrants
  29. Culture Shock
    A feeling of disorientation and discomfort due to the lack of familiar environmental cues
  30. U-Curve Theory
    • A theory that individuals go through three predictable phases in adapting to new culture.
    • Process:
    • * Excitement and anticipation
    • * Experience Culture Shock
    • * Adaptation
  31. Involuntary Short-Term Travelers
    People who are border dwellers not by choice and only for a limited time, such as refugees forced to move
  32. Involuntary Long-Term Travelers
    People who are border dwellers permanently but not by choice, such as those who relocate to escape war
  33. Reverse Culture Shock/Reentry Shock
    Culture shock experienced by travelers upon returning to their home country
  34. Encapsulated Marginal People
    People who feel disintegrated by having to shift cultures
  35. Constructive Marginal People
    People who thrive in a border dweller life, while recognizing its tremendous challenges
  36. Cultural Values
    Beliefs that are so central to a cultural group that they are never questioned
  37. When examining cultural values, we must:
    • 1. Understand these values are predominant and NOT absolute
    • 2. Understand these are cultural values, NOT individual values
    • 3. Understand the best way to get to know what a person believes is to get to know the person-->TALK
  38. 6 Cultural values
    • 1. Individualism and Collectivism
    • 2. Preferred Personality
    • 3. View of Human Nature
    • 4. Human Nature Value
    • 5. Power Distance
    • 6. Long Term versus Short Term Orientation
  39. Individualistic Orientation
    A value orientation that respects the autonomy and independence of individuals
  40. Collectivistic Orientation
    A value orientation that stresses the needs of the group
  41. Preferred Personality
    A value orientation that expresses whether it is more important for a person to "do" or to "be"
  42. View of Human Nature
    A value orientation that expresses whether humans are fundamentally good, evil, or both
  43. Human-Nature Value Orientation
    The perceived relationship between humans and nature
  44. Power Distance
    A value orientation that refers to the extent to which less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a culture expect and accept an unequal distribution of power
  45. Long-term versus Short-term Orientation
    The dimension of a society's value orientation that reflects its attitude toward virtue or truth
  46. Short-term Orientation
    A value orientation that stresses the importance of possessing one fundamental truth
  47. Monotheistic
    Belief in one god
  48. Long-term orientation
    A value orientation in which people stress the importance of virtue
  49. Polytheistic
    Belief in more than one god
  50. Dialectic Approach
    Recognizes that things need not be perceived as either/or, but may be seen as both/and
  51. 6 Dialectical Approaches or Tensions
    • 1. Culture/Individual
    • 2. Personal/Contextual
    • 3. Difference/Similarity
    • 4. Static/Dynamic
    • 5. History/Past-Present/Future
    • 6. Privilege/Disadvantage
  52. Dichotomous Thinking
    Thinking in which things are perceived as "either/or" (I.e. good or bad, big or small, right or wrong)
  53. Intercultural Communication and power
    Power is represented in a cultural hierarchy that is never exactly fixed but that does constrain and influence communication among cultural groups. (In any moment there will be one with more power)
  54. Co-cultural Group
    A significant minority group within a dominant majority that does not share dominant group values or communication patterns
  55. Three factors that influence Relational Development
    • Proximity
    • Physical Attractiveness
    • Similarity
  56. Proximity
    How close one is to others (historically: location wise, such as a college campus, workplace, and neighborhood. Today: email, txt, etc made it larger)
  57. Attractiveness
    The appeal one person has for another, based on physical appearance, personalities, and/or behavior, or communication skills.
  58. Matching Hypothesis
    The tendency to develop relationships with people who are approximately as attractive as we are (can be in friendships, romantic relationship, marriage, or roommate)
  59. Similarity
    Degree to which people share the same values, interest, and background
  60. Uncertainty Reduction Theory
    Theory that argues that much earlier interaction is dedicated to reducing uncertainty about others and determining if one wishes to interact with them again.
  61. Models for Relational Development
    Stage Models & Relationship Trajectory Models
  62. 3 Stage Models of Relationship Development
    • * Social Penetration Theory
    • * Knapp's Stage Model
    • * Rawlin's Stage Model for Friendship
  63. Social Penetration Theory
    A theory that proposes relationships developed through increases in self-disclosure (breadth, depth, frequency)
  64. Breadth
    The numbers of different topics dyads willingly discuss
  65. Depth
    How deep or personal communication exchanges are
  66. Frequency
    How often self-disclosure occurs
  67. 4 Stage Models of Social Penetration Theory
    • Orientation
    • Exploratory Affective Exchange
    • Affective Exchange
    • Stable Exchange
  68. Orientation
    The in which people first meet and engage in superficial communication
  69. Exploratory Affective Exchange
    Stage in which people increase the breadth of their communication
  70. Affective Exchange
    Stage in which people increase the breadth, depth, and frequency of their self-disclosure
  71. Stable Exchange
    Stage in which relational partners engage in the greatest breadth and depth of self-disclosure
  72. Knapp's Stage Model
    • Model of relationship development that views relationships as occurring in stages and that focuses on how people communicate as relationships develop and decline (a staircase graph of 5 steps leading up to commitment and down to termination)
    • Commitment: 1. Initiating, 2. Experimenting, 3. Intensifying, 4. Integrating, 5. Bonding.
    • Termination: 1. Differentiating, 2. Circumscribing, 3. Stagnating, 4. Avoiding, 5. Terminating
  73. Initiating
    Stage of romantic relational development in which both people behave so as to appear pleasant and likeable
  74. Experimenting
    Stage o romantic relational development in which both people seek to learn about each other
  75. Intensifying
    Stage of romantic relational development in which both people seek to increase intimacy and connectedness
  76. Integrating
    Stage of romantic relational development in which both people portray themselves as a couple
  77. Bonding
    Stage of romantic relational development characterized by public commitment
  78. Differentiating
    Stage of romantic relational dissolution in which couples increase their interpersonal distance
  79. Circumscribing
    Stage of romantic relational dissolution in which couples discuss safe topics
  80. Stagnating
    Stage of romantic relational dissolution in which couples try to prevent change
  81. Avoiding
    Stage of romantic relational dissolution in which couples try not to interact with each other
  82. Terminating
    Stage of romantic relational dissolution in which couples end their relationship (does not necessarily mean that it is a regret or that they did not stay friends)
  83. Rawlin's Stage Model for Friendship
    • Stage 1: Role-limited interaction (friend of a friend)
    • Stage 2: Friendly relations (introduces possibility of future friendship)
    • Stage 3: Moves toward friendship
    • Stage 4: Nascent friendship
    • Stage 5: Stabilized friendship
    • Stage 6: Waning friendship (friends on facebook that you haven't spoken to in a long time)
  84. Three Relational Trajectory Models
    • * Whirlwind Trajectory
    • * Friendship First Trajectory
    • * Turning Points Model
  85. Relational Trajectory Models
    Relationship development models that view relationship development as more variable than do stage models
  86. Whirlwind Trajectory
    Characterized by "love at first sight" and a rapid progression toward commitment
  87. Friendship First Trajectory
    Characterized by a gradual progression from friendship to romance
  88. Turning Point Model
    • A model of relationship development in which couples move both toward and away from commitment over the course of their relationship
    • Couples engage in 14 turning points in their relationship (I=increase; D=decrease; 0=no change):
    • Get-to-know time (I)
    • Quality time (I)
    • Physical separation (0)
    • External competition (D)
    • Reunion (I)
    • Passion (I)
    • Disengagement (D)
    • Positive psychic change (I)
    • Exclusivity (I)
    • Negative psychic change (D)
    • Making up (I)
    • Serious commitment (I)
    • Sacrifice (I)
  89. Relationship Dialectics
    Dialectics are the contradictory tensions that couple's experience in relationships.
  90. 3 primary Relationship Dialectic Tensions and the different stages
    • Autonomy/connection
    • Expressive/privacy
    • Change/Predictability
  91. Dialectic
    The tension people experience when they have two seemingly contradictory but connected needs.
  92. Autonomy/Connection
    A dialectical tension in relationships that refers to one's need to connect with others and the simultaneous need to feel independent au autonomous
  93. Expressiveness/Privacy
    A dialectical tension in relationships that describes the need to be open and to self-disclose while also maintaining some sense of privacy
  94. Change/Predictability
    A dialectical tension in relationships that describes the human desire for events that are new, spontaneous, and unplanned while simultaneously needing some aspect of life to be stable and predictable
  95. Tactics for initiating friendship and relationships
    Effective communication (flirting/asking nonthreatening questions) I.e. touch, nonverbal communication, questions/comments
  96. Maintaining Relationships
    • Effective communication-->couples' happiness
    • Satisfied relationships-->effective communication
  97. Maintaining Friendship through Communication
    • Equal communication skills=better/stronger friendship
    • Assurances, positivity, open discussion, and listening
    • Shared activities and ongoing interactions
    • Good conflicting management skills
  98. Relational Maintenance
    • Behaviors that couples perform that help maintain their relationship
    • (Positivity, Openness, Assurances, Social networks, Sharing tasks, Joint activity, Mediated communication, Avoidance/antisocial, Humor)
  99. 2 basic trajectories for ending relationships
    Sudden death and Passing Away
  100. Sudden Death
    The process by which relationships end without prior warning for at least one participant
  101. Passing Away
    The process by which relationships decline over time
  102. Fatal Attraction Concept
    Qualities individuals initially found attractive became the qualities that led to the end of the relationship.
  103. Romance Termination Strategies
    • Negative Identity Management
    • De-escalation Strategies
    • Justification Strategies
    • Behavioral de-escalating strategies
  104. Negative Identity Management
    Communicating in ways that arouse negative emotions in order to make the other person upset enough to agree to break off a relationship
  105. De-escalation Strategies
    Covers broad range of strategies, such as promising some continued closeness (we can still be friends) or suggesting that the couple might reconcile in the future. An attempt to reframe or change the definition of the relationship
  106. Justification Strategies
    Finding reasons to end the relationship (Positive (more time for our careers) or negative reasons (we will hate each other)
  107. Behavioral de-escalating strategies
    Avoiding the partner (least used b/c it is hard to avoid your ex.)
  108. Friendship Termination Strategies
    Withdrawal/Avoidance; Machiavellian Tactics; Positive Tone Strategy; Openness
  109. Withdrawal/Avoidance
    A friendship termination strategy in which friends spend less time together, don't return phone calls, and avoid places where they are likely to see each other
  110. Machiavellian Tactics
    Having a third party convey one's unhappiness about a relationship
  111. Positive Tone Strategy
    Express concern for the rejected friend and try to make the person feel better
  112. Openness
    You straightforwardly explain to your friend why the relationship is ending
  113. Challenges to Relationships
    • Aversive Communication Behaviors
    • Deceptions
    • Jealousy
    • Interpersonal Violence
    • Sexual Coercion
  114. Two types of Interpersonal Aggression
    • Battering
    • Situational Couple Violence
  115. Deception
    Concealment, distortion, or lying in communication
  116. Truth Bias
    The tendency to not suspect one's intimates of deception
  117. Jealousy
    A complex and often painful emotion that occurs when a person perceives a threat to an existing relationship
  118. Interpersonal Violence
    Physical violence against a partner or child
  119. Sexual Coercion
    Physically nonviolent pressure to engage in unwanted sex
  120. Homogeneity
    A high degree of similarity
  121. Relational Dialectics
    • A dynamic knot of contradictions in personal relationships; an unceasing interplay between contrary or opposing tendencies
    • Much of Baxter and Montgomery's work is inspired by Bakhtin who saw dialectical tensions as providing an opportunity for dialogue
  122. Dialectical Tensions
    Dialectical tensions play out in both our relationships (internal) and between the couple and the community (external)
  123. Internal Dialectics
    Ongoing tensions played out within a relationship
  124. External Dialectics
    Ongoing tensions between a couple and their community
  125. The three primary dialectics
    • * Integration/Separation
    • * Stability/Change
    • * Expression/Non-expression
  126. Integration/Separation
    • A class of relational dialectics that includes connectedness-separateness, inclusion-seclusion, intimacy-independence, and closeness-autonomy
    • According to B & M, this is the primary strain within relationships
  127. Stability/Change
    A class of relational dialectics that includes certainty-uncertainty, conventional-uniqueness, predictable-surprise, and routine-novelty
  128. Expression/Nonexpression
    • A class of relational dialectics that includes openness-closeness, revelation-concealment, candor-secrecy, transparency-privacy
    • Each possible advantage for going public is offset by a corresponding potential danger
  129. Second Generation Dialectics
    • Baxter has recently taken her notion of dialectics and applied it to the relational implications of Bakhtin's notion of dialogue--Talk that constructs negotiations: What is the end result? How does it change?
    • Baxter believes that dialogue is the second generation of relational dialectics.
  130. There are five strands of thought that characterizes dialogue
    • Strand 1: Dialogue as a constitutive process
    • Strand 2: Dialogue as dialectical flux
    • Strand 3: Dialogue as an aesthetic moment
    • Strand 4: Dialogue in utterance
    • Strand 5: Dialogue as Critical Sensibility
  131. Dialogue
    Communication that is constitutive, always in flux, capable of achieving aesthetic moments
  132. Strand 1: Dialogue as a constitutive process
    • Constitutive Dialogue: Communication that creates, sustains, and alters relationships and the social world; social construction
    • A Constitutive Approach suggests communication creates and sustains the relationship
  133. Strand 2: Dialogue as dialectical flux
    Dialectical Flux: The unpredictable, unfinalizable, indeterminate nature of personal relationships
  134. Strand 3: Dialogue as an aesthetic moment
    • Aesthetic Moment: A fleeting sense of unity through a profound respect for disparate voices
    • in dialogue
    • * Moment of communication of real connection that last
    • just a moment, and can never be found again.
    • * Moment when you come to a realization about a topic. "I never would have thought or seen it in
    • that way"
  135. Strand 4: Dialogue in utterance
    • A portion of multi-vocal communication that affects and is affected by one or more other voices in the conversation
    • Creates the back and forth in communication
  136. Spiraling Inversion
    Switching back and forth between two contrasting voices, responding first to one pull and then the other
  137. Segmentation
    A compartmentalizing tactic by which partners isolate different aspects of their relationship
  138. Strand 5: Dialogue as Critical Sensibility
    An obligation to critique dominant voices, especially those that suppress opposing viewpoints; a responsibility to advocate for those who are muted
  139. "Walk the narrow ridge"
    Balancing interests off all in your life (yours and those around you.)
  140. Consequentialist Ethics
    Judging actions solely on the basis of their beneficial or harmful outcomes.
  141. Principle of veracity
    Truthful statements are preferable to tell lies in the absence of special circumstances that overcome their negative weight
  142. Concluding Thoughts on Relational Dialectics:
    • Many theorist don't think relational dialectics should be considered a theory
    • "It lacks the structural intricacies of formal theories for predictions and explanations; it offers no extensive hierarchical array of axiomatic or propositional arguments. It does not represent a single unitary statement of generalized predictions"
    • * Baxter and Montgomery offer relational Dialectics as a sensitizing theory that should be judged on the basis of its ability to help us see close relationships in a new light.
  143. The Interactional View by Watzlawick and the Palo Alto group
    These researchers were interested in studying HOW certain behaviors affect people rather than why they did them
  144. Watzlawick and The Pragmatics of Human Communication
    • This theory was developed by Paul Watzlawick and published in the book. 1965
    • In this book, he and his co-authors outlines several different axioms of communication that he believed made up the "grammar of communication" or "the rules of the game"
  145. Axioms of Interpersonal Communication
    • Oftentimes, systems become static (such as Family Homeostasis)
    • Through understanding these axioms, we can begin to recognize and change our destructive attitudes towards change.
  146. Family System
    A self-regulating, interdependent network of feedback loops guided by members' rules; the behavior of each person affects and is affected by the behavior of another
  147. Games
    Sequences of behaviors governed by rules
  148. Family Homeostasis
    The tacit collusion of family members to maintain the status quo
  149. Axiom 1: One cannot not communicate
    • Even if we deliberately don't respond, the nature of communication requires a reciprocal interaction--therefore even our failure to respond sends a message.
    • I.e. Symptom Strategy
  150. Symptom Strategy
    Ascribing our silence to something beyond our control that renders communication justifiably impossible (sleepiness, headache, drunkenness, etc...)
  151. Axiom 2: Communication= Content + Relationship
    • Any message we send (either verbal or nonverbal) is made up of both content component and a relationship component.
    • Relationship aspects surround content and thus provide a context and atmosphere for the interpretation.
    • Watzlawick referred to the relational aspect of interaction as metacommunication
  152. Content
    The report part of a message; what is said verbally
  153. Relationship
    The command part of the message; how it is said nonverbally
  154. Metacommunication
    Communication about communication
  155. Axiom 3: The nature of a relationship depends on how both parties punctuate the communication sequence
    • Punctuate: Interpreting an ongoing sequence of events by labeling one event as the cause and the following event as the response
    • * This sometimes results in conceiving of ourselves as reacting to, but not as provoking the attitudes of others.
    • * Makes it hard to break the cycle
  156. Punctuate
    Interpreting an ongoing sequence of events by labeling one event as the cause and the following as the response.
  157. Axiom 4: All communication is either symmetrical or complementary
    • * Symmetrical interchange
    • * Complementary interchange
  158. Symmetrical Communication
    Interaction based on equal power
  159. Complementary Interchange
    Interaction based on accepted differences of power
  160. Rogers and Farace identify three types of communication exchanges that help us better Watzlawick�s idea
    • * One-up communication
    • * One-down communication
    • * One-across communication
  161. One-up Communication
    A conversational move to gain control of the exchange; attempted domination
  162. One-down Communication
    A conversational move to yield control of the exchange; attempted submission
  163. One-across Communication
    A conversational move to neutralize or level control within the exchange; when just one party uses it, the interchange is called transitory
  164. Trapped in Systems
    Watzlawick saw family members (or anyone in a system) as often caught in the double-bind of mutually exclusive expectations, which Bateson describes as the double-bind--Circle that continually perpetuates itself.
  165. Enabler
    Within addiction culture, a person whose nonassertive behavior allows others to continue in their substance abuse
  166. Double Bind
    A person trapped under mutual exclusive expectations; specifically; the powerful party in a complementary relationship insists that the low-power party act as if it were symmetrical (I.e. Tell me you love me!)
  167. Reframing
    • The process of instituting change by stepping outside of a situation and reinterpreting what is means
    • It's all how you look at something
    • Accepting a new frame (or way), implies rejecting the old one.
  168. Addiction Model
    Assumes alcoholism and other addictions are diseases to be cured rather than character disorders to be condemned
  169. Whole-message Model
    Regards verbal and nonverbal components of a message as completely integrated and often interchangeable
  170. Equifinality
    A systems-theory assumption that a given outcome could have occurred due to any or many interconnected factors rather than being a result in a cause-effect relationship