Chapter 6 sociology
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What is a social group?
is a collection of people who regularly interact with one another on the basis of shared expectations concerning behavior and who share a sense of common identity.
What is an ingroup?
What is an out group?
are groups twoard which one feels loyalty and respect-the groupts that we belong to.
are groups toward which one feels antagonism and contempt "those people"
What are secondary groups?
are large and impersonal and seldom involve intense emotional ties, enduring relationships, powerful commitments to the group itself, or experience of unity.
What is a reference group?
Who introduced this concept?
is a group that provides a standard for judging one's attitudes or behaviors- dont have to be a part of the group.
Robert K. Merton
What is a diad?
A group consisting of two persons.
What is a triad?
is a group consisting of three people acting more of a stable group than dyads because of the presence of the third person relieves some of the pressure on the other two members to always get along and energize the relationship.
What are transformational leaders?
are leaders who are able to instill in the members of a group a sense of mission or higher purpose, thereby the nature of the group itself.
What are transactional learders?
are leaders who are concerned with accomplishing the group's tasks, getting group members to do their jobs, and making certain that the group achieves its goals.
What are networks?
are sets of informal and formal social ties that link people to each other.
What are formal organizations?
are means by which a group is rationally designed to achieve its objectives, often by means of explicit rules, regulations, and procedures.
What is a primary group?
are groups that are characterized by intense emotional ties, face-to-face interaction, intimacy, and strong, enduring sense of commitment.
What is groupthink?
is a process by which the members of a group ignore ways of thinking and plans of aciton that go against the cgroup consensus- go with the croud.
What is bureaucracy?
bureaucracy is a type of organization marked by a clear hierarchy of authority and the xistence of written rules of procedure and staffed by full-time, salaried official.
dominant form of organization around the world.
What are the characteristics of beaurriocracy?
- 1. There is a clear-cut hierarchy of authority.
- 2. Written rules govern the conduct of officials at all levels of the organization.
- 3. Officials are full time and salaried.
- 4. There is a separation between the tstks of an official within the organization and his life outside.
- 5. No members of the organization own the material resources with which they operate
What is surveillance society?
is the term referring to how information about our lives and activities is maintained by organizations.
What is social aggregate?
Social aggregate is a simple collection of people who happen to be together in a particular place but do not significantly interact or identify with one another.
What are the lessons from milgram experiment?
- Influence of authority
- status influences behavior.
Who was Max Webber?
What did he justify?
a protestant ethic and spirit of capitalism: puritanism imparted an ethos of planning and self-control in all economic activities.
the rational pursuit of individual economic objectives.
Who is George Ritzer?
- he applied Weber's principle of rationality in contemporary society in where he stated that groups and organizations become dominated by:
- control through machines.
What is Weber's concept of rationality?
The 'iron cage of rationality' was a concept that was introduced by Max Weber. He proposed that people seem to be trapped in these 'iron cages' brought about by rational control and calculation. He observed that the social actions of individuals became more based on rationality instead of on values and tradition.
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