Chapter 5

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  1. What is learning?
    Some experience that results in a relatively long-lasting change in the state of the learner
  2. Habituation
    a general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in responding. (non-associative)
  3. Neural plasticity
    The nervous systems ability to change: growth of dendrites and axons, synaptogenesis, pruning Long-term potentiation
  4. Types of associative learning
    Classical conditioning, Observational, Operant (COO)
  5. What is classical conditioning?
    Pairing a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that naturally leads to a response
  6. Example of classical conditioning
    Loud noise whenever a light is turned on
  7. Steps of Classical Conditioning
    • 1. CS no reaction
    • 2. Pairing CS with US
    • 3. Learners know that if there's CS, US will be there too
    • 4. CS will have same reaction as US
  8. What is US?
    A stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning
  9. What is UR?
    A reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning
  10. What is CS?
    An initually neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus
  11. What is CR?
    A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by CS
  12. Acquisition
    The acquiring of a learned response as a result of the pairing of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus
  13. Extinction
    The weakening & eventual disappearance of a learned response because the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus
  14. Spontaneous Recovery
    The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction
  15. Stimulus generalization
    When similar stimuli elicit the same response as a conditioned stimulus after classical conditioning has occurred
  16. Stimulus discrimination
    an organism learns to emit a specific behaviour in the presence of a stimulus, but not in the presence of stimuli similar to the original stimulus
  17. Explain the Little Albert experiment
  18. Rescorla-Wagner Model
    Classical conditioning only occurs when animal has learned an expectation
  19. Biological preparedness
    a propensity for learning particular associations
  20. Operant Conditioning
    a type of learning in which the consequences of an organism's behaviour determine whether it will be repeated in the future
  21. Example of operant conditioning
    If you do something, something else will happen. Example, if you wear makeup, you will get compliments
  22. Law of Effect
    • good reaction = do it again
    • bad reaction = don't do it again
  23. Reinforcer
    any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behaviour that led to it
  24. Positive Conditioning
    something is added
  25. Negative Conditioning
    Something is removed
  26. Positive Reinforcement
    Addition of something desirable
  27. Negative Reinforcement
    Removal of something undesirable
  28. Positive Punishment
    Addition of something undesirable
  29. Negative punishment
    removal of something desirable
  30. Continuous
    every response followed rapidly by reinforcement
  31. Intermittent
    Reinforcement delivered only occasionally - ratio schedule (# of responses for reinforcement) and interval schedule (amount of time that must pass before reinforcement)
  32. Fixed ratio
    number of responses required for reinforcement stays the same
  33. Variable-ratio
    A certain number of responses required for reinforcement, but this number changes
  34. Fixed-Interval
    reinforcement delivered for first response after a fixed allotment of time
  35. variable-interval
    allotted time before a response will yield reinforcement changes
  36. Behaviour Modification
    a systematic approach to change behaviour through operant conditioning
  37. Shaping
    Learning that results from the reinforcement of successive approximations to a final desired behaviour
  38. Observational learning
    learning that takes place by watching actions of others
  39. Neural Elements
    medial forebrain bundle, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens
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Chapter 5
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