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Griggs vs. Duke Power Company
Landmark case affecting issue of testing at the workplace. Ruled that tests that measure broad abilities, in which minority goup members pass at much lower rates than whites are unfair to use to make decisions of hiring an dpromotion.
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
- Original Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Act.
- States that one cannot discriminate on the basis of sex, ethnicity, and a variety of other factors.
Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection
Use of any test that adversely affects hiring, promotion, or other selection procedures, constitutes discrimination
Use of the test is still acceptable if test is validated, has utility, and no alternatives are available.
Americans with Disabilities Act
Bans discrimination in employment, transportation, access to public buildings, as well as discrimination in other settings.
Requires companies to make reasonable accommodations for disabled individuals
80% or 4/5 rule
States that the percentage of minorities selected must be at least 4/5ths of the percentage of non-minorities selected
Occurs when minorities and non-minorities score differently on the predictor test but perform similarly on the criterion
Occurs when there are significantly different criterion-related validity coefficients for different groups on the same test
(test is more valid for predicting the performance of one group than another)
Process of identifying the content of a job in terms of activities involved and attributes needed to perform the work and identifies major job requirements
Provides important info for hiring, wages, training etc
(BIB: Biographical Inventory Blank)
Selection and screening procedure that covers applicant's life in great detail
Good predictors of success and turnover, but time consuming and costly
First Impression Bias
Tendency of interviewer to be swayed by initial impression and overlook candidate's presentation in remainder of interview
Negative Information Bias
Tendency for one or two negative items to cause interviewer to overlook candidate's strengths and accomplishments
Interviewer's ratings of a candidate are influenced by performance of previous candidate
Involves generalizing from one characteristic to the entire candidate in either a positive or negative direction (e.g., attractiveness)
Presents applicants with typical problems/questions that managers would expect to find when returning from vacation.
Must respond in fixed period of time and justify decisions.
Leaderless Group Discussion
Applicants meet as a group to discuss an actual business problems and leadership qualities, communication styles are observed as they interact with each other
Selection procedure: multiple regression approach
Low scores on one predictor can be compensated for by high scores on another (low GPA but high SAT)
Selection procedure: Multiple cutoff
Only applicants meeting cutoff on all predictors will be considered
Selection Procedure: Multiple Hurdle
Applicant must pass the cutoff score on first predictor to continue in selection process
When internal cues are weak, we observe our own behavior and situation
Example: Schacter’s epinephrine study (2-Factor Theory of Emotion)
Rewarding people for an enjoyable activity can undermine interest in that activity.
Social Comparison Theory
When people are uncertain about their abilities or opinions, they evaluate themselves by comparing themselves to similar others.
People need and seek confirmation of their self-concept, whether positive or negative.
Bad for depression! Confirm neg thoughts
People tend to be more satisfied and intimate in relationships that are verifying
Fundamental Attribution Error
Tendency to underestimate the impact of situations and overestimate the role of dispositional factors
E.g., Speech Study
For others, we tend to make fundamental attribution error.
For ourselves, more likely to make situational attributions.
For successful behaviors -- more likely to make disposition attributions about ourselves
For failures -- tend to focus on situational factors
Weiner's Attributional Theory of Motivation and Emotion
- Attributions taxonomy:
- - Interval v external
- - Stable v unstable
- - Controllable v uncontrollable
- - Intentional v unintentional **
- - Global v specific **
- ** = newer
- Accomplishments that are intentional and specific lead to pride; negative behaviors that are intentional and specific lead to shame
Rotter's Locus of Control
Internal: view themselves as cause of things that happen to them, achievement oriented, self-confident
External: fate, luck etc is cause of what happens; more anxious, self-conscious
Belief in a Just World
World is a just place in which we "get what we deserve" and "deserve what we get"
Explains blaming victim
Locus of Control & Locus of Responsibility
IR/IC: view of dominant culture; success or failure due to own efforts and abilities
IR/EC: marginalized individual; little control over own fate, but deny existence of racism and blame themselves for their plight
ER/IC: believes in ability to shape own life, but recognizes barriers like discrimination
ER/EC: little control over their lives and blame system; treatment helps with coping strategies, arrange opportunities to experience success
False Consensus Bias
- Tendency to overestimate the degree to which others conform to us in terms of:
- - opinions
- - attributes
- - behavior
Certain characteristics may imply more about a person than others -- central traits (e.g., warm/cold)
Information presented early in a sequence has the greatest impact.
Impact may persist even when later opposing evidence is presented
Exceptions: irrelevant activity between presentations; being told not to jump to conclusions
Trait Negativity Bias
In evaluating others, we weigh negative information more heavily than positive information (e.g., political campaigns)
Once we form an impression -- regardless of how faulty -- our tendency is to seek or create information that verifies existing belief.
- - Rosenhan's pseudopatient study
- - Pygmalion in the classroom (self-fulfilling prophency)
A cognitive belief that associates groups of people with certain traits.
Negative feelings about persons based solely on their group membership.
Behavior directed against persons due to their identification with a certain group.
"The Nature of Prejudice"
Argued that prejudice is a multiply determined phenomenon arising from historical, cultural, social, and psychological forces.
Strongly internalized -- not likely to change right away with anti-discrimination laws
Conventional, rigid in thinking, sexually inhibited
Submissive to authority, intolerant of different others
Often had domineering parents who had harsh disciplinary measures
F (Fascism Scale)
Measures authoritarian personality traits
High scores often associated with prejudice
Social Identity Theory
Cause of prejudice
Each of us strives to maintain/enhance self esteem -- both personal and social identity
Believe in-group is attractive and belittle members of out-group
Racially mixed classrooms in which the material to be learned is divided into subtopics and each student is responsible for teaching a subtopic.
2/3 black children preferred white doll
1/2 thought white dolls looked more like them
Brown vs. Topeka: helped argument against separate but equal
Direct contact between groups will reduce stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination
- Certain conditions must be met:
- 1. Two equal groups
- 2. Should involve personal contact
- 3. Situations should provide opportunities for mutual cooperative activities to achieve a join goal
- 4. Social norms in the contact situation should encourage cooperation, group equality, and intergroup contact.
Name the variables related to attractiveness
- 1. Proximity
- 2. Similarity
- 3. Complementarity (beautiful woman, wealthy man)
- 4. Physical attractiveness
- 5. Self-disclosure
- 6. Reciprocity (impact greatest when person first reacts negatively then warms up)
- 7. Costs and benefits (seek relationships that offer greater rewards than costs)
Positive and negative emotions are most likely to arise in a relationship when one partner's behavior disconfirms the other partner's expectations.
Problems arise when partners have unrealistic expectations that are repeatedly disconfirmed.
The presence of bystanders reduces the helping of any one person. Greater the number of bystanders, greater the apathy.
Causes of bystander apathy
1. Diffusion of Responsibility: bystander doesn't feel responsible because they assume others will help.
2. Social Influence: look to others for cues as to how to behave.
3. Evaluation Apprehension: taking action might be embarrassing or lead to social disapproval
4. Confusion of Responsibility: if person approaches a victim, person might be seen by others as responsible for misfortunes.
Two Types of Aggression
1. Instrumental: behavior is means to some end (football)
2. Hostile: venting or release of negative emotion
Frustration always leads to aggression and is always preceded by frustration. If aggression inhibited it is displaced onto another target.
Modifications to Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
Miller: frustration only sometimes leads to aggression. But if frustration continues, nonaggressive reactions will extinguish and the aggressive response will become dominant.
- Berkowitz: between frustration and aggression are:
- - Cognitions
- - Attributions
- - Prior learning
- - Person's personality
Doing or witnessing an aggressive act can decrease the inclination to engage in other aggressive acts.
NOT SUPPORTED BY RESEARCH!
What role does deindividuation play in violence and aggression?
Nonviolent individuals may become violent in a crowd because of anonymity (loss of sense of individuality). Doesn't have to be in a crowd... anonymous experiment or loud music.
Describe Sherif's (1936) study on conformity
Used autokinetic effect and asked how far dot moved.
Individual looks to others as source of information when situation is ambiguous.
Group pressure, desire to be accepted by the group and avoid criticism.