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What is deviance?
are modes of action that do not conform to the norms or values held by most members of a group or society.
What is regarded as deviant is as variable as the norms and values that distinguish different cultures and subcultures from one another. Forms of behavior that are highly esteemed by one group are regarded negatively by others.
What are sanctions?
is a mode of reward or punishment that reinforces socially expected forrms of behavior.
What are informal sanctions?
are sanctions applied by individuals and groups.
What are laws?
Laws are norms defined and enforced by goernments.
What are crimes?
acts that are not permitted by those laws
What is lomborso's biological theory?
- that criinals are born that way
- they have identifiable characteristics: jaw shape, hairy, low sensitivity to pain
- requires interventioon at childhood.
deviance not hereditary
What are psychopaths?
are specific personality types; such individuals lack the moral sense and concern for others held by most normal people.
emotionless characters who delight in violence for its own sake.
What is an anomie?
is a concept first brought into wide usage in sociology by Durkheim, referring to a situation in which social norms lose their hold over individual behavior.
What are Deviant subcultures?
are subcultural explanations that draw attention to groups, such as gangs, that reject mainstream values and replace them with norms celebrating defiance, deliquency, or nonconformity.
a subculture whose members hold values that differ substantially from those of the majority.
What is differential association?
is an interpretation of the development of criminal behavior proposed by edwin h. sutherland, according to whom criminal behavior is learned through association with others who regularly engage in crime.
What is the labeling theory?
is an approach to the study of deviance that suggests that people become "deviant" because certain labels are attached to their behavior by political authorities and others.
What is primary deviance?
is the first act of transgression.
What is secondary deviance?
is the outgrowth of acceptance of deviant label.
What is the conflict theory?
is argument that deviance is dleiberately chosen and often political in nature.
What is the broken window theory?
it is the theory that arose from a study by the social psychologist Philip Zimbardo. Wilson and Kelling argued that any sign of social disorder in a community, even the appearance of a broken window, encourages more serious crime.