CD 118

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rajvirnahal
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245128
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CD 118
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2013-11-05 01:35:31
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Cognition
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  1. schemes
    • in piagets theory, actions or mental representations that organize knowledge 
    • as the child seeks to construct an understanding of the world the brain creates schemes
  2. Piaget stressed that the following processes are especially important in this regard: what processes do children use as they construct their knowledge of the world?
    SCHEMES, ASSIMILATION, ACCOMODATION, ORGANIZATION AND EQUILIBRATION
  3. assimilation
    piagetian concept of the incorporation of new information into existing knowledge
  4. to explain how children use and adapt their chemes, piaget proposed two concepts:
    assimilation and accommodation
  5. accommodation
    occurs when children adjust their schemes to fit new information and experiences
  6. Organization
    piagets concept of grouping isolated behaviors into a higher-order, more smoothly functioning cognitive system; the grouping or arranging of items into categories
  7. equilibration
    • a mechanism that piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next. 
    • the shift occurs as children experience cognitive conflict, or disequlibigrium, in trying to understand the world
    • eventually they resolve the conflict and reach a balance or equilibrium of thought
  8. sensorimotor stage
    • the first of piagets stages
    • lasts from birth to about 2 yo
    • infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences ( such as seeing and hearing) with motric actions
  9. what are piagets six substages?
    • Simple reflex
    • first habits and primary circular reactions
    • secondary circular reactions 
    • coordination of secondary circular reactions 
    • Tertiary circular reactions, novelty and curiosity 
    • internaization of schemes
  10. Simple Reflex substage
    • birth to 1 month
    • coordination of sensation and action through reflexive behaviors 
    • ex: rooting, sucking, and grasping reflexes; newborns suck reflexively when their lips are touched
  11. First habits and primary circular reaction
    • 1-4 month 
    • Coordination of sensation and two types of schemes: habits(reflex) and primary circular reaction(reproduction of an event that initially occurred by chance)
    • main focus is still on infants body
    • ex: repeating body sensations first experenced by chance( sucking thumb) then infants might accommodate actions by sucking their thumb differently from how they suck on a nipple
  12. Secondary circular reactions
    • 4-8 months
    • infants become more object oriented, moving beyond self- preoccupation; repeat actions that bring interesting or pleasurable results 
    • ex: an infant coos to make a person stay near; as the person starts to leave the infant coos again
  13. Coordination of secondary circular reactions
    • 8-12months 
    • coordination of vision and touch- hand eye coordination; coordination of schemes and intentionality  
    • ex: infant manipulates a stick in order to bring an attractive tow within reach
  14. teritary circular reactions, novelty and curiosity
    • 12-18months 
    • infant becomes intrigued by the many properties of objects and by the many things they can make happen to objects; the experiment with new behavior 
    • ex: a block can be made to fall, spin, hit another object and slide across the ground
  15. internalization of schemes
    • 18- 24 months 
    • infants develop the ability to use primitive symbols and form enduring mental representations 
    • ex: an infant who has never thrown a temper tantrum before sees a playmate throw a tantrum; the infant retains a memory or the event then throws one himself the next day
  16. object permanence
    the piagetian term for one of an infants most important accomplishments: understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard or touched
  17. a- not - b error
    occurs when infants make the mistake of selecting the familiar hiding place (a) rather than the new hiding place (b) as they progress into substage 4 in piagets sensorimotor stage
  18. core knowledge approach
    • states that infants are born with domain-specific innate knowledge systems, such as those involving space, number sense, object permanence and language 
    • (nature vs nurture)
  19. operations
    • internalized actions that allow children to do mentally what before they had done only physically 
    • operations also are reversible mental actions
  20. preoperational stage
    • the 2nd piagetian developmental stage 
    • lasts from about 2-7 years 
    • the child begins to represent the world with words, images and drawings 
    • stable concepts are are formed 
    • divided into two substages : symbolic function  and the intuitive thought substage
  21. symbolic function substage of pos
    • the first substage of preoperational thought
    • occurs  between ages 2-4
    • the young child gainsthe ability to represent mentally an object that is not present
  22. egocentrism
    • an important feature of preoperational thought
    • the inability to distinguish between ones worn and someone elses perspective
  23. animism
    • a facet of preoperational thought 
    • the belief that inanimated objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of action
  24. intuitive thought substage
    • the 2nd substage of preoperational thought
    • 4-7yr
    • children begin to used primitive reasoning
  25. centration
    focusing attention on one characteritic to the exclusion of all others
  26. conversation
    the idea that altering an objects or substances apperance does not change its basic properties
  27. Concrete operational stage
    • 7-11 years 
    • when children can preform concrete operations, and logical reasoning replaces intuitive reasoning as a long as the reasoning can be applied to specific or concrete examples
  28. Horizontal decalage
    piagets concept that similar ablities do not appear at the same time withn a stage of development
  29. seriation
    the concrete operation that involves ordering stimuli along a quatitavtive dimension( such as length)
  30. transitivity
    • principle that says if arelation holds between a first object anda second object and holds between the second object and a third object then it holds between the first object and the third object 
    • piaget argued that an understanding of transivity is characteritic or concrerete opertional thought
  31. formal operational stage
    • pigets fourth and final stage 
    • 11-15 yo
    • when individuals move beyond concrete experiences and think in more abstract and logical ways
  32. hypothetical-deductive reasoning
    piget's formal operational concept that adolescents have the cognitive ability to develop hypotheses about ways to solve problems and can systematically deduce which is he best path to follow insolving problems
  33. adolescent egocentrism
    the heightened selfconsciousness of adolescents which is reflected in adolescents belief that oters are as interested in them as they are in themselves and adolesents sense of personal uniqueness and invulnerability
  34. imaginary audience
    the aspect of adolescent egocentrism that involves attention getting behavior motivated by a desire to be noticed, visible  and onstage
  35. personal fable
    the part of adolesent egocentrism that involves an adolescents snse of uniquenss and invicibilty

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