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Describe how designers use design cycle models to represent the design
- Technical design may be described in a variety of ways and degrees of complexity. Some
- design cycle models are simple and some are more complex
- The design process usually consists of successive stages that can be arranged as a
- systematic cyclical process that eventually converges to produce a solution to
- a problem.
List the stages in the IB design cycle model (DCM)
the Ib Design cycle model (DCM) is comprised of six different stages these are:
stage 1: identifying or clarifying a need
or opportunity for design
- Stage 2: Analyzing
- researching and specifying requirements for the design
and solutions for the design problem
- 4:Develop chosen solution for the design problem
Stage 5: Realizing
the chosen design solution
Stage 6:Testing and /or evaluating
the chosen design solution.
Describe a design brief.
- The design brief is the
- formal starting point for a new design. It is a statement of the expectation of
- the design
- The “brief” does not provide the design solution, but it a statement that
- sets out:
- - The design goal (for example, a working
- prototype to be evaluated in terms of its feasibility for volume production)
- - The target
- market for the product (for example, for children, disabled adults)
- - The major
- constraints are not negotiable (for example should comply with new legislation,
- have fewer working parts, be cheaper to manufacture) within which it must be
- - The sucess criteria by
- which a good design proposal may be achieved (for example, increased value for
- money and/or cost-effectiveness for
Describe the identifying or clarifying a need or opportunity stage of the IB design cycle model.
- The context for the
- problem is described and a concise brief stated. The design process can begin
- with a problem, an identified need, a market opportunity, a demand, a desire to
- add value to an existing product, or a response to opportunities presented by
- technological developments
- The initial design problem
- is a loose collection of constraints, requirements and possibilities. From this
- the designer has to make a coherent pattern
- The design brief states
- the intended outcome and the major constraints within which must be achieved.
Describe a design specification.
- design specification justifies the precise requirements of a design. The
- specification will include a full list of the criteria against which each
- specification can be evaluated.
Describe the analysing, researching and specifying requirements stage of
the IB design cycle model.
Developing the specification from the brief is an evolving process beginning with an initial set of specification and culminating in a final product design specification (PDS)
Describe the generating ideas and solutions stage of the IB design cycle
Divergent thinking is used to consider ways in which a problem may be solved.
- The starting point for the generation of ideas should be the design specification
- and proposal should be evaluated against these.
Evidence of relevant research used to rate the ideas
in terms of their usefulness.
- A variety of approaches should be used, and different possibilities explored and
- analysed, before deciding on the most suitable design solution.
Describe the developing the chosen solution stage of the IB design cycle
- A final concept is developed taking into account the conflicting needs of the
- manufacturer and the user, and the requirement of design as set out in the
- A complete proposal is developed based upon the research and the designer’s
- personal ideas. This stage involves detailed drawings (of a style relevant to
- the task).
Describe the testing and evaluating the chosen solution stage of the IB
design cycle model.
The Final outcome is tested and evaluated against the requirements set out in the specification. Recommendations for modifications to the design are made. A reiteration process should now begin.
Explain why the IB design cycle model is not linear and why it is
iterative in practice, thus making it representative of design thought and
The IB design model emphasizes that designing is not linear process. Evaluation, for example, will take place at various stages for the process, not just at the end. Similarly, ideas for possible solution are not only generated at the generating ideas stage; some good ideas may develop even as early as the identifying needs stage. In practice, it is impossible to separate the stage of the design process as clearly as the model suggests.
Explain the role of the designer in the design process.
The designer’s role varies depending in the complexity of the process and the intended outcome. The designer is required to achieve the design solution, which solves the problem.
Describe how designers interact with others and how the emphasis of the design process varies depending on the designer’s role.
Designers often work as members of a team. Priorities will vary depending on the nature of the activity. For example, the information required by an architect will be different from that required by an engineer.
Explain why elements of the model may differ in importance according to
the particular design context.
- Depending upon the nature
- of the problem, not all elements of the Design cycle carry the same weight in
- terms of time allocation and complexity
- Points to consider include cost, resources, skills, time, original design
- specification and product modification