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"The Poverty of Progress: Latin America in the Nineteenth Century" by Bradford Burns
- -cosmetic modernization is most visible in urban areas
- -modernization in 19th was mostly conducted by creole elite and little by folk or ordinary people
- - believes that modernization was ultimately the downfall for Latin America because it did not benefit the majority of its people
- -European ideas benefited the elite at the expense of the majority
"The Pristine Myth: the Landscape of the Americas in 1492" by William Denevan
"A Vanished El Dorado" by Jeremy Main
- -Discusses the Jesuit missions in the South American jungles to convert Guarani Indians to the Catholic faith.
- -Priests involved in the mission; Strategies used by the priests
"A Nineteenth-Century Argentine Cattle Empire" by Jonathan Brown
-the cattle boom in Argentina began in response to widening markets in the industrializing centers of Europe and the United States
"Gauchos and the Vanishing Frontier" by Richard Slatta
"Revolution on the Pampas: A Social History of Argentine Wheat, 1860-1910" by James Scobie
"The Prairies and the Pampas: Agrarian Policy in Canada and Argentina, 1880-1930" by Carl Solberg
- -comparing Canada and Argentina wheat growing regions
- -competed in same market
- -both attracted millions of immigrants
- 2. Differences
- -Canadian immigration policy was selective in favor of northern Europeans
- -tariff in Canada and free trade in Argentina
- -Canada's government worked closely with its agricultural sector
- -Canada allowed greater farm ownership which develops different infrastructure and Argentina had mostly renters
"Buenos Aires: Plaza to Suburb, 1870-1910" by James Scobie
Argentina emergence as a major presence in world commercial agriculture
- -most for wheat exports
- -key innovation was the development of the refrigerated meat plant or frigorifico
- -new breads, windmills, barbed wire fencing
What were South America's new economies?
- In the 19th century, South America’s gold and silver mines began to run out. A new source of wealth was needed.
- -In Brazil, plantations of coffee and rubber were set up,
- -while Argentina’s grasslands supported sheep and cattle.
- -When refrigeration was invented, huge amounts of beef were exported from Buenos Aires.
La Pampa transformation
- farming-related activities started to turn into commercial activities: livestock breeding, wheat monoculture,
- -gauchos herding cattle now most are gone
- -cattle herding was for leather not meat