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What are some common network file systems?
- • SMB/CIFS; Samba (Windows-based systems)
- • NFS (Unix-based)
- • AFS (Unix)
- • AFP (MAC)
- • NCP (Netware)
what is a network file system? (NFS)
Network protocol- that allows a server to share directories and files with clients over a network. With NFS, users and programs can access files on remote systems as if they were stored locally
- -purpose is to take SCSI command and encapsulate them and transmit over a network
- -infrastructure or architecture to the fabric the type of network connection and devices where server and storage can be interconnected
- • Traditional SANs used Fibre Channel protocol and storage technology to connect SAN at gigabit speeds
- • SCSI commands transmitted over FCP
- • Expensive
- • Requires dedicated network equipment/architecture
iSCSI (internet small computer system interface)
- SCSI- interface that allow multiple devices to connect to a computer; a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices.
- • Allows SAN utilize TCP/IP for block-level data transfer
- • Transport for SCSI commands
- • Existing networks (routers/switches) can be utilized – no need for special equipment
- • With current network technologies supporting gigabit speeds, comparable to FC in speed
- • NAS-SAN Integration
- -go over TCP/IP network, an alternative that allow you to connect to your storage device using block-level over typical IP network not over Fibre Channel network
- • Volume Management performed by RAID controller
- • Parity computation performed by the RAID controller – decreases server overhead
- • Dedicated cache memory improves server performance
- • Hardware RAID is implemented through the server hardware
- ○ Independent of the operating system
- • Advantages over software RAID:
- ○ Faster read and write response
- ○ The ability to place boot and system files on different RAID levels
- ○ The ability to ‘‘hot-swap’’ a failed disk
- ○ More setup options to retrieve damaged data
- • Performed by the server O/S
- • Parity computation performed by the server – increased overhead
- • RAID performance depends on the server performance and CPU load
- • For simple environments with lower performance and availability requirements
- • Software RAID implements fault tolerance through the server’s operating system
What is RAID?
- Redundant Array of Inexpensive (Independent) Disks
- • Consolidate multiple physical disks into a logical grouping
LDAP protocol operations
- • Authentication: Open, bind and unbind; allows the client to prove its identity to the DSA.
- • Interrogation: Search, compare; provides a method for the client to interrogate the directory information tree.
- • Update: Add, Modify, Delete; defines a mechanism for the client to add or modify information in the directory information tree.
common directory products
- (Microsoft Active Directory;
- Novell eDirectory;
- Apple Open Directory;
- Sun Java System Directory Server;
- Apache Directory Server;
- Oracle Internet Directory)
How does LDAP relate/compare to X.500?
- • LDAP was originally developed as an alternative to X.500 DAP protocol
- • It was designed to use TCP/IP instead of OSI protocol stack (“lighter protocol”).
- • LDAP evolved into a complete directory service
- • LDAP’s architecture and naming structure are based on X.500 standard
- • Although today’s version of DAP also runs over TCP/IP, LDAP remains the popular option for connection to a Directory.
what is LDAP?
- "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol"
- -LDAP is an open network protocol standard designed to provide access to distributed directories.
- -LDAP provides a mechanism for querying and modifying information that resides in a directory information tree (DIT).
- -LDAP is just a protocol that defines the method by which directory data is accessed.
- -Necessarily, it also defines and describes how data is represented in the directory service (the Data Model).
- -Finally, it defines how data is loaded (imported) into and saved (exported) from a directory service (using LDIF).
X.500 directory architecture
- The X.500 Directory is developed for storing information about objects, such as organizations, persons, distribution lists, groups, certification authorities, etc. The information stored about an object is identity information and other information associated with the object, e.g. its postal address.
- • Implemented as a distributed database
- • All network entities are implemented as objects with attributes
- • Schema defines the directory “blueprint”
what is a directory?
- A directory service is the collection of software, hardware, processes, policies, and administrative procedures involved in making the information in your directory available to the users of your directory.
- It’s a hierarchical database that stores information in an object-oriented, rather than a tabular form, as an RDBMS does. The difference in the architecture is in the type of services that a directory provides.
Directory as a database comparison
- Directory is a specialized database
- • Directories typically have a higher read-to-write ratio than databases.
- • Directories are typically more easily extended
- • Directories are usually more widely distributed
- • Directories are often replicated on a higher scale
- • Directories usually have very different performance characteristics
- Support for standards is important in directories, less so in databases.
what is ASN.1?
a standard for describing data that is independent of machine-specific encoding.
Why is ASN.1 necessary to defined managed objects?
A managed object's datatype is defined using a subset of Abstract Syntax Notation One(ASN.1). ASN.1 is a way of specifying how data is represented and transmitted between managers and agents, within the context of SNMP. The nice thing about ASN.1 is that the notation is machine-independent. This means that a PC running Windows NT can communicate with a Sun SPARC machine and not have to worry about things such as byte ordering.
- • Was implemented as a full standard
- in 2004
- • Only changes relate to security and remote configuration
- • SNMPv3 provides for encryption, authentication and message integrity
Concept of network mgmt
- • Any complex system with many interacting components must be monitored, managed and controlled
- • In the early 1980 networks expansion prompted the need for automated network management
- • In general, network management is a service that employs a variety of tools, applications, and devices to assist human network managers in monitoring and maintaining networks.
why is network mgmt necessary?
- -Network management scenarios
- • Detecting failure of an interface card in a device
- • Host monitoring
- • Traffic monitoring to optimize resource deployment
- • Detecting rapid changes in routing tables
- • Intrusion detection