Card Set Information
Acute/Chronic Neurologic Disorders
Primary brain injuries
direct injuries, lacerations, crushing of the neurons, glial cells, and BV of the brain.
Secondary brain injuries
result from additional effects of cerebral, edema, hemorrhage, hematoma, cerebral vasospasm, infection, and ischemia R/T systemic factors.
reversible interference with brain function, usually resulting from a mild blow to the head.
bruising of brain tissue with rupture of small BV and edema that usually results from a blunt blow to the head
Closed head injury
occurs when the skull is not fractured in the injury, but the brain tissue is injured and BV may be ruptured by the force exerted against the skull.
Open head injury
those involving fractures or penetration of the brain by missiles or sharp objects.
simple cracks in the bone.
several fracture lines but may not be complicated.
involve trauma in which the brain issue is exposed to the environment and is likely to be severely damaged because bone fragments may penetrate the tissue and the risk of infection is high.
an area of the brain contralateral to the site of direct damage is injured as the brain bounces off the skull.
Primary brain injuries
lacerations, crushing of the neurons, glial cells, and BV of the brain
additional effects of cerebral edema, hemorrhage, hematoma, cerebral vasospasm, infection, ischemia
collection of blood in the tissue that develops from ruptured BV, either immediately after injury or after some delay
results from bleeding between the dura and the skull, usually caused by tearing of the middle meningeal artery in temporal region
between dura and arachnoid, frequently a small tear in a vein causing blood to accumulate slowly. acute or subacute (24 hrs to about a week)
in space between the arachnoid and pia, associated w/traumatic bleeding from the BV at the base of the brain
results from contusions or shearing injuries, may develop several days after
Etiology of brain injury
sports injuries, motorcycle and car accidents, falls, contact sports, shaking infants
Signs/symptoms of brain injury
seizures, CN impairment, otorrhea, rhinorrhea, otorrhagia, fever, stress ulcers
Treatments for brain injury
CT, MRI, surgery, blood products, O2, head assessments at home after discharge
injury of the cervical spine, stimulation of the sympathetic system triggering a massive sympathetic reflex response that cannot be controlled from the brain
accumulated bilirubin crosses the BBB and causes damage to the neurons
Spastic paralysis (CP)
results from damage to the pyramidal tracts (diplegia) or the motor cortex (hemiparesis) or from general cortical damage (quadriparesis).
Paralysis of corresponding parts on both sides of the body.
Slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body.
Weakness of both arms and both legs
results from damage to the extrapyramidal tract, basal nuclei, or cranial nerves.
Athetoid/Choreiform involuntary movements
seen in dyskinetic disease (CP), characterized by rapid, jerking movements
develops from damage to the cerebellum and manifests as loss of balance and coordination.