Micro Chapter 5

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Micro Chapter 5
2013-11-05 13:21:45

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  1. Catabolic reactions break apart......and release....
    • the bonds holding larger molecules together
    • the energy in the bonds
  2. Anabolic reactions bond.........to make.....and therefore use....
    • smaller molecules together
    • larger molecules
    • energy
  3. In a reduction reaction a molecule is ______ an electron. The electron is ________ by a molecule involved in a ________ reaction
    • gaining
    • donated
    • oxidation
  4. Reduced molecules are _______ electrons
    Oxidized molecules are ________ electrons
    • gaining
    • losing
  5. Anabolism and catabolism are linked reactions with the __________ of one set of reactions being used to _________________. This linkage works in either direction as long as an outside source of_______________are available.
    • products
    • keep the reactions in the other going
    • nutrients and energy
  6. 3 important carrier molecules in respiration
    • NAD- NADH (reduced)
    • NADP-NADPH(reduced)
    • FAD- FADH2 (reduced)
  7. Glycolysis uses
  8. Pentose Phosphate pathway uses
  9. THe Entner-Duodoroff pathway uses
  10. Acetyl CoA synthese uses
  11. Krebs cycle uses
    NAD and FAD
  12. Electron Transport uses
    NADH and FADH
  13. 3 ways cells phosphorylate
    • Substrate-level phosphorylation
    • Oxidative phosphorylation
    • Photophophorylation
  14. In substrate-level phosphorylation, the phosphate being transferred to ADP comes from an _________
    organic molecule
  15. In oxidative phosphorylation, energy from ______________ is used to attach an __________ phosphate to ADP
    • oxidation reduction reactions
    • inorganic
  16. Photophosphorylation uses ___________ and ___________ phosphate to phosphorylate ADP
    • light energy
    • inorganic
  17. substrate level phosphorylation occurs in
  18. Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in
  19. Photophosphorylation occurs in
  20. Enzymes end in the letters
  21. An enzymes name often describes its action. Examples:
    Polymerase are 
    Lipases use
    enzymes that are used as catalysts in reactions that make polymers

    use lipids as a substrate
  22. What form the base of most enzymes?
  23. Ribozymes are
    ribosomes that act as enzymes in reactions involving other RNA molecules
  24. A proteinaceous enzyme that has another molecule(factor) in addition to the protein is called a
  25. The protein part of the holoenzyme is the
  26. the additional factor of the holoenzyme is the
  27. What is a coenzyme
    an organic molecule cofactor

    all coenzymes are vitamins or contain vitamins
  28. Enzymes help reactions by
    lowering the amount of energy needed to trigger or start the reaction
  29. The trigger energy of a reaction is called the
    activation energy
  30. What is a substrate
    the molocule involved in the reaction
  31. Enzyme-substrate specificty
    the active site is very specific for the substrate that will be involved in a specific complex reaction
  32. What is the active site on an enzyme
    a location on the enzyme that is an "exact fit" for the substrate molecule and is where the reaction will occur
  33. Induced-fit model
    interaction between the active site and the substrate
  34. Four factors that affect enzymatic rates
    temperature- too high causes denaturation or a change in shape

    pH- too high or too low can break bonds and cause danaturation

    enzyme and substrate concentrations- more=faster

    the presence of inhibitors- can deanture or slow or stop the reaction
  35. What type of macromolecule is an enzyme?
    a protein
  36. Why is there a need for inhibition
    if you want to control how much product is being produced
  37. 3 types of inhibitors
    • Noncompetitive ( allosteric)
    • competitive
    • End-product
  38. They type of inhibition in which the inhibitor molecule fits into an allosteric site (alternative site). The inhibitor is not using the active site
    noncompetitive "allosteric"
  39. Inhibition in which the inhibitor inhibits by competing with the substrate for the active site. The inhibitor is occupying the active site so the substrate cant
  40. Inhibition in which the end product of a metabolic pathway is used as the allosteric inhibitor.
    end product
  41. deamination
    removal of an amino group from an amino acid or other compound
  42. End products of Glycolosis
    • 2 pyruvate 
    • 2 NADH
    • 2 ADP

    2 ATP
  43. Pathways involved in Respiration
    • Glycolysis
    • Synthesis of Acetyl-CoA
    • Krebs Cycle
    • Electron Transport
  44. In and Out of ETC
    • In- NADH and FADH, electrons
    • Out- energy used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP
  45. Krebs In and Out
    • In- 2 acetyl groups, 6 NAD, 2 FAD, 2 ADP + 2 P
    • Out- 4 C02, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP
  46. Alternative pathways to glycolysis
    • Pentose Phosphate pathway used in anabolic reactions such as those that synthesis nucleic acids
    • Entner-Duodoroff pathway- need fewer coennzymes, produce different metabolities, reduce NADPH instead of NADH, all of which are needed for synthesis of DNA, nucleotides, steroids, and fatty acids.
  47. fats and protiens are ____________ into their basic monomer subunits and used as substrates
  48. anabolic reactions require
    energy and basic precursor metabolites
  49. what is an amphibolic pathway
    function as either catabolic or anabolic as needed