UCCS Biology 1200 Test 3 Vocab

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UCCS Biology 1200 Test 3 Vocab
2013-11-06 13:57:01
UCCS Biology 1200 Test Vocab

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  1. What is endosymbiosis?
    A type of symbiosis in which one organism lives inside the other, the two typically behaving as a single organism. It is believed to be the means by which such organelles as mitochondria and chloroplasts arose within eukaryotic cells
  2. What are plankton?
    any organisms that live in the water column and are incapable of swimming against a current
  3. What are Phytoplankton?
    Plankton consisting of microscopic plants
  4. What are Zooplankton?
    Plankton consisting of small animals and the immature stages of larger animals
  5. What is Behavior?
    Individually, an action carried out by muscles or glands under control of the nervous system in response to a stimulus; collectively, the sum of an animal's responses to external and internal stimuli
  6. What are pseudopodia?
    A cellular extension extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding
  7. What is a food vacuole?
    A membraneous sac formed by phagocytosis of microorganisms or particles to be used as food by the cells
  8. What is a contractile vacuole?
    A vacuole in some protozoans that expels excess liquid on contraction
  9. What is conjugation?
    The direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined
  10. What is a decomposer?
    An organism that decomposes organic material
  11. What is a saprotroph?
    an organism that feeds on or derives nourishment from decaying organic matter
  12. What is a plasmodium?
    A single mass of cytoplasm containing many diploid nuclei that forms during the life cycle of some slim molds
  13. What is a mixotroph?
    An organism that is capable of both photosynthesis and heterotrophy
  14. What is a heterotroph?
    An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or substances derived from them
  15. What is alternation of generations?
    A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae
  16. What is a gametophyte?
    In organisms that have alternation of generations, the multicellular haploid form that produces haploid gametes by mitosis. The haploid gametes unite and develop into sporophytes
  17. What is a sporophyte?
    The multicellular diploid form that results from the union of gametes
  18. What is apical meristem?
    The tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells, found in zones of the plant where growth can take place
  19. What is a sporangium?
    a receptacle in which asexual spores are formed
  20. What is a archegonium?
    the female sex organ in mosses, liverworts, ferns, and most conifers
  21. What is an antheridium?
    the male sex organ of algae, mosses, ferns, fungi, and other nonflowering plants
  22. What is a rhizoid?
    • a filamentous outgrowth or root hair on the underside of the thallus in some lower plants
    • esp. mosses and liverworts, serving both to anchor the plant and (in terrestrial forms) to conduct water
  23. What is peat?
    a brown, soil-like material characteristic of boggy, acid ground, consisting of partly decomposed vegetable matter. It is widely cut and dried for use in gardening and as fuel
  24. What is xylem?
    the vascular tissue in plants that conducts water and dissolved nutrients upward from the root and also helps to form the woody element in the stem
  25. What is phloem?
    the vascular tissue in plants that conducts sugars and other metabolic products downward from the leaves
  26. What is a microphyll?
    A small leaf with a single unbranched vein
  27. What is a megaphyll?
    A leaf with a highly branched vascular system
  28. What is a fiddlehead?
    the young, curled, edible frond of certain ferns
  29. What is sori?
    Plural form of sorus; A cluster of sporangia on a fern sporophyll
  30. What is an epiphyte?
    A plant that grows on another plant but is NOT PARASITIC, such as the numerous ferns, bromeliads, air plants, and orchids growing on tree trunks in tropical rain forests
  31. What is gymnosperm?
    a plant that has seeds unprotected by an ovary or fruit. Gymnosperms include the conifers, cycads, and ginkgo
  32. What is angiosperm?
    a plant that has flowers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel. The angiosperms are a large group and include herbaceous plants, shrubs, grasses, and most trees
  33. Define homosporous:
    A plant species that has a single kind of spore, which typically develops into a bisexual gametophyte
  34. Define heterosporous:
    Plant species that has two kinds of spores (Microspores and megaspores)
  35. What is a megaspore?
    A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a gametophyte
  36. What is a microspore?
    A spore fro ma heterosporous plant species that develops into a male gametophyte
  37. What is a micropyle?
    A pore in the integuments of an ovule
  38. Define monoecious:
    having both the male and female reproductive organs in the same individual
  39. What is a microphyll?
    A small leaf with a single unbranched vein
  40. What is an ovum?
    a mature female reproductive cell
  41. What is a pollen grain?
    In seed plants, a structure consisting of the male gametophyte enclosed within a pollen wall
  42. What is a seed cone?
    The female seed producing cones
  43. What is a pollen cone?
    The male pollen producing cones
  44. Dioecious
    having the male and female reproductive organs IN SEPARATE individuals
  45. What is an evergreen?
    A plant that has leaves in all seasons and stays green year round
  46. Deciduous
    Plants that shed their leaves annually
  47. What is a flower?
    In an angiosperm, a specialized shoot with up to four sets of modified leaves, bearing structures that function in sexual reproduction
  48. What is double fertilization?
    A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the female gametophyte (embryo sac) to form the zygote and endosperm
  49. What is endosperm?
    In angiosperms, a nutrient rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm with two polar nuclei during double fertilization. It provides nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds
  50. What is cotyledon?
    A seed leaf of an angiosperm embryo
  51. What is a root?
    Organ in a plant that anchors it to the ground and absorbs nutrients from the soil
  52. What is a taproot?
    The main vertical root that develops from an embryonic root and gives rise to lateral roots
  53. What is a lateral root?
    A root that arises from the pericycle of an established root
  54. What is the lateral meristem?
    A meristem that thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants. Two examples include the vascular cambium and cork cambium
  55. What does a fibrous root system look like?
  56. What does a taproot system look like?
  57. What is a node?
    A point along the stem of the plant where leaves are attached
  58. What is an internode?
    A segment on a plant stem between the points where leaves are attached
  59. What is an axillary bud?
    A structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot, or branch. The bud appears in the angle formed between a leaf and stem
  60. What is an apical bud?
    A bud at the tip of a plant stem; also known as the terminal bud
  61. What is a blade?
    • 1) a leaflike structure of a seaweed that provides most of the surface area for photosynthesis
    • 2) The flattened portion of a typical leaf
  62. What is a petiole?
    the stock of a leaf which joins the leaf to a node of the stem 

  63. What is a simple leaf?
    • A leaf that is not divided into parts 
  64. What is a compound leaf?
    A leaf divided into separate distinct parts. Think a clover
  65. What is the dermal tissue?
    The outer protective covering of plants
  66. What is the epidermis?
    the dermal tissue system of non-woody plants usually consisting of a single layer of tightly packed cells
  67. What is the periderm?
    the protective coat that replaces the epidermis in woody plants during secondary growth, formed of the cork and the cork cambium
  68. What is fertilization?
    • 1) The union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote
    • 2) The addition of mineral nutrients to the soil
  69. What is a carpel?
    The ovule producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary
  70. What is dormancy?
    A condition typified by extremely low metabolic rate and suspension of growth and development
  71. What is a stamen?
    The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and filament
  72. What is a complete flower?
    A flower that has all four basic floral organs: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels
  73. What are the four basic floral organs?
    • sepals
    • petals
    • stamens
    • carpels
  74. What is an incomplete flower?
    A flower in which one or more of the four basic floral organs are either absent or non-functional
  75. What is an ovule?
    A structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte
  76. What is a pollen grain?
    In seed plants, a structure consisting of the male gametophyte enclosed within a pollen wall
  77. What is a pollen tube?
    A tube that forms after germination of the pollen grain and that functions in the delivery of sperm to the ovule
  78. What is fruit?
    The mature ovary of a flower
  79. What is the function of fruit?
    It protects the dormant seeds and aids in their dispersal
  80. What is asexual reproduction?
    The generation of offspring from a single parent that occurs without the fusion of gametes
  81. What is fragmentation?
    A means of asexual reproduction whereby a single parent breaks into parts that regenerate into whole individuals
  82. What is self-incompatibility?
    The ability of a seed plant to reject its own pollen and sometimes the pollen of closely related individuals
  83. What does it mean if an organism is transgenic?
    • That the organisms genome contains a gene introduced from another organism of the same or different species
    • They are also known as GMOs
  84. What is phloem?
    Vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant
  85. What is ground tissue?
    Plant tissue that is neither vascular nor dermal
  86. What is the function of ground tissue?
    Storage, photosynthesis, and support
  87. What is a trichome?
    • A small hair or other outgrowth from the epidermis of a plant, typically unicellular and glandular
    • (Remember the trichome in the video that made the caterpillar smell bad to attract prey)
  88. What is cork cambium?
    a cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that replaces the epidermis with thicker, tougher cork cells
  89. What is bark?
    All tissue external to the vascular cambium, consisting mainly of the secondary phloem and layers of periderm
  90. What is apical meristem?
    embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and buds of shoots. The dividing cells of an apical meristem enable the plant to grow in length
  91. What is an collenchyma cell?
    A flexible plant cell type that occurs in strands or cylinders that support the young parts of the plants without restraining growth
  92. What is a companion cell?
    A type of plant cell that is connected to a sieve-tube element by many plasmodesmata and whose nucleus and ribosomes may serve one or more adjacent sieve-tube elements
  93. What are stomata?
    A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells  in the epidermis of leaves that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant
  94. What is a sieve-tube element?
    a living cell that conducts sugars and other organic nutrients in the phloem of angiosperms
  95. What is a sclerenchyma cell?
    A rigid supportive plant cell type usually lacking a protoplast and possessing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity
  96. What are guard cells?
    The two cells that flank the stomatal pore and regulate the opening and closing of the pore
  97. What is lignin?
    A hard material embedded in the cellulose matrix of vascular plant cell walls that provides structural support in terrestrial species
  98. What is a tracheid?
    A long, tapered water conducting cell found in the xylem of nearly all vascular plants. Functioning tracheids are no longer living
  99. What are vessel elements?
    Short, wide water conducting cells found in the xylem of most angiosperms and few nonflowering vascular plants. Dead at maturity, vessel elements are aligned end to end to form micropipes called vessels
  100. What is vascular cambium?
    A cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that adds layers of secondary vascular tissue called secondary xylem and secondary phloem
  101. What is a parenchyma cell?
    An unspecialized plant cell type that carries out most of the metabolism, synthesizes organic products and develops into a more differentiated cell type
  102. What is determinate growth?
    a type of growth characteristic of most animals and some plant organs in which growth stops after a certain size is reached
  103. What is indeterminate growth?
    a type of growth characteristic of plants in which organisms continue to grow as long as they live
  104. What is primary growth?
    growth produced by apical meristems, lengthening stems and roots
  105. What is secondary growth?
    growth produced by lateral meristems, thickening the roots and shoots of woody plants
  106. What is meristem?
    plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives; allowing for indeterminate growth
  107. What do the floral organs attach to?
    The receptacle
  108. What is imbibition?
    the uptake of water due to the low water potential for the dry seed
  109. Asexual reproduction in planst is also known as:
    Vegetative reproduction
  110. Define apomixis:
    The asexual production of seeds
  111. What are the five super groups of protists? (UCARE)
    • Unikonta
    • Chromalveolata
    • Archaeplastida
    • Rhizaria
    • Excavata
  112. What are apicomplexans?
    Parasites of animals
  113. According to the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells, How did mitochondria originate?
    From engulfed, originally free-living proteobacteria
  114. (True or False) An individual plant will alternate between diploid and haploid states
  115. What is the evolutionary sequence of chloroplasts of land plants?
    Cyanobacteria → Green Algae → Land Plants

  116. (True or False) Trypanosoma, Plasmodium, and Giardia are all parasitic protists of humans
  117. (True or False) Generations of plants alternate between sporophyte and gametophyte
  118. (True or False) If a parent plant is a sporophyte, its offspring will be a gametophyte
  119. Which are found in gymnosperms?
    a. fruit
    b. pollen
    c. nonfertile flower parts
    d. carpels
    • a. fruit
    • b. pollen
    • c. nonfertile flower parts
    • d. carpels
  120. What are monocots?
    members of a clade consisting of flowering plants that have one embryonic seed leaf and parallel leaf veins
  121. The vascular cambium produces what?
    • Secondary xylem
    • Secondary phloem
  122. What is responsible for secondary growth?
    • Vascular cambium
    • Lateral meristem
  123. What cells transport sugars over long distances?
    Sieve-tube elements
  124. In angiosperms, the ____ becomes the seed and the ____ becomes the fruit
    In angiosperms, the ovule becomes the seed and the ovary becomes the fruit
  125. Your backyard plant looks fucked, what nutrient should you try adding first to make it healthy again?
  126. What type of tissue in plants protects the plant from desiccation,damage, and predators?
    Dermal tissue
  127. What drives movement of xylem sap in plants?
  128. What drives movement of phloem sap in plants?
    water pressure differentials
  129. The female gametophyte in an angiosperm consists of:
    8 cells contained within the ovule of a flower
  130. A flower that has carpels but no stamen is called:
    An incomplete flower
  131. What does double fertilization refer to?
    The fusion of one sperm cell with an egg and another sperm cell with the two polar nuclei