Meyer's Psychology 10th Edition Chapter 7

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Meyer's Psychology 10th Edition Chapter 7
2013-11-05 14:52:29
Meyer Psychology general psychology

Terminology from Chapter 7
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  1. The process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.
  2. Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).
    Associative Learning
  3. Any event or situation that evokes a response.
  4. The acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language.
    Cognitive Learning
  5. A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
    Classical Conditioning
  6. The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
  7. In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning.
    Neutral Stimulus (NS)
  8. In classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US or UCS) (such as food in the mouth).
    Unconditioned Response (UR or UCR)
  9. In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response (UR or UCR).
    Unconditioned Stimulus (US or UCS)
  10. In classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
    Conditioned Response (CR)
  11. In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US or UCS), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR).
    Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
  12. In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
  13. A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone. (Also called second-order conditioning.)
    Higher-Order Conditioning
  14. The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US or UCS) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
  15. The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
    Spontaneous Recovery
  16. The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
  17. In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
  18. A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
    Operant Conditioning
  19. Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
    Law of Effect
  20. In operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking.
    Operant Chamber
  21. In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
  22. An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior. 
  23. Increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
    Positive Reinforcement
  24. Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment.)
    Negative Reinforcement
  25. An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
    Primary Reinforcer
  26. A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer
    Conditioned Reinforcer
  27. A pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced.
    Reinforcement Schedule
  28. Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
    Continuous Reinforcement
  29. Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
    Partial (intermittent) Reinforcement
  30. In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
    Fixed Ratio Schedule
  31. In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
    Variable Ratio Schedule
  32. In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
    Fixed Interval Schedule
  33. In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
    Variable Interval Schedule
  34. Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.
    Respondent Behavior
  35. Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.
    Operant Behavior
  36. A mental representation of the layout of one’s environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
    Cognitive Map
  37. Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
    Latent Learning
  38. A desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake.
    Intrinsic Motivation
  39. A desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.
    Extrinsic Motivation
  40. Learning by observing others.
    Observational Learning
  41. The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior. 
  42. Frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation and empathy.
    Mirror Neurons
  43. Positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior.
    Prosocial Behavior