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Biol 224 lecture urinary system
Lecture study guid
What are the general functions of the urinary system?
Regulation of ion concentration in the blood.
Regulation of PH in the blood
Regulation of blood volume and blood pressure.
Regulation of blood glucose level
(glucose appear in urine if blood glucose level is beyond maximum)
(erythroprotein & renin)
Excretion of metabolic waste
How juxtamedullary nephron different from cortical nephron? Why is that important?
The cortical nephron
form 85% of thotal nephrons. It's loop of Henle is no longer then the width of the cortex.
The juxtamedullary nephron
of the total nephrons. It's loop of Henle is
which allow it to create
more concentrate urine
mesentery-like structure that connect the kidneys to the body wall
Perinephric fat capsule
Adipose tissue that cushion and protect the kidney.
Also called renal capsule, a
connective tissue that form the outer wall of the kidney
What role does the glomerulus play in formation of urine?
O & solute out of the blood that become filtrate
. Part of that original filtrate become urine.
What are the two layers comprise Bowman's capsule.
form the wall of the corpuscle.
(podocyte) on top of the glomerulus.
What will be released by the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
Renin & etythopoietin
During reabsorption process, is fluid moving towards the blood or towards the filtrate? Is this fluid we want to keep or fluid that we want to loos in the urine?
Fluid moving toward the blood
. We want to keep this fluid.
During secretion process, fluid moving towards the blood or towards the filtrate? Is this fluid we want to keep or we want to loos in the urine?
Fluid moving toward the filtrate
want to get rid of it in the urine
During filtration process, is fluid moving toward the blood or toward the filtrate?
(happens in glomerulus only when H
O & solute move out of the blood and become filtrate)
What are the 3 main metabolic waste that are eliminated at the kidneys? Where will each of them come from?
product of amino acid breakdown.
:by-product of creatine phosphate in skeletal muscle.
: by-product of digestion of RNA.
Trace the blood flow through the kidney
Renal artery→ Segmental artery→ interlobar artery→ arcuate artery→ cortical radiate artery→ afferent arterioles→ glomerulus→
efferent arterioles→ capillaries of the nephron→ cortical radiate veins→ arcuate vein→ interlobar vein→ renal vein.
What is the rout that filtrate flow through the nephron?
1) Bowman,s capsule.
2) Proximal convoluted tubule.
3) Thick descending LOH.
4) Thin descending LOH.
5) Thin ascending LOH.
6) Thick ascending LOH.
7) Distal convoluted tubule.
8) Collecting ducts
How will capsular hydrostatic pressure effect filtration? What causes it?
Oppose filtration pressure.
Cause by filtrate in the nphron.
What is the cause of BCOP? Does it cause filtration or oppose it?
Osmotic pressure in the blood
(change in proportion to solute concentration in the blood).
Will oppose to filtration
What causes glomerular hydrostatic pressure? Will it cause filtration or oppose it?
Blood pressure in the glomerulus.
Will cause filtration.
List the layers of filtration
fenestrated capillary endothelium
slits between podocytes
What comprises the renal corpuscle?
capillaries whet blood get filtered
double walled capsule
secrete renin & erytopoetin
In which area of the nephron are nutrients reabsorbed?
What transport mechanism are used to move solutes across the basal surface of the ascending LOH?
What transport mechanism are used to move solutes across the apical surface of the ascending LOH?
, and K
Will solutes secreted or reabsorebed in the ascending LOH?
(In the thick part)
LOH (loop of Henle) is water secreted or reabsorbed?
Neither, the ascending LOH is impermeable to water.
In the descending LOH (loop of Henle) are solutes secreted or reabsorbed? How about water?
Solutes are secreted
How does the concentration of solutes changes as you move deeper into the medulla of the kidney? Why does it matter?
as you go deeper into the medulla (from 300 mOsm in the cortex to 1200 mOsm by the papilla).
This allow for water re-absorption
What will occur if transport maximum is surpassed?
is surpassed for a particular nutrient, it will
appear in the urine
Define transport maximum (T
). What determines T
for a particular nutrient?
Carrier protein saturation point
and cannot transport (reabsorbed) more nutrients back to the body.
nutrient has its own T
that beyond that it can no longer be reabsorbed
What transport mechanisms are used to move water and solutes across the basal surface of the proximal convoluted tubule?
moves solutes such as
amino acids, glucose, Cl
, and K
in opposite direction.
What transport mechanisms are use to move solutes across the apical surface of the proximal surface? How about water?
(proteins moving two molecules in the same direction)
Within the proximal convoluted tubule, are solutes secreted or reabsorbed? How about water?
Solute and water reabsorbed
in the proximal convoluted tubule.
How much filtration fraction will actually urine each day.
If we making 180 L/day of filtrate, only 1.5 L of it become urine.
Define filtration fraction. What is the average for the filtration fraction? How is this number calculated?
The volume of plasma that become filtrate.
of renal plasma flow rate (
renal plasma rate
If renal plasma fraction is 646.8 mL/min(0.19) = filtrate fraction 123 mL/min
Define renal plasma fraction. What is the average value for renal plasma flow rate? how we get this number?
Volume of plasma passing through the kidneys per minute
(plasma is the part of whole blood that can become filtrate).
Plasma in whole blood =55%.
whole blood pass in kidneys (renal fraction) 1,176 mL/mim(0.55) = plasma fraction 646.8
Define renal fraction. What is the average value for renal fraction? How is this value determined?
Volume of blood moving through the kidneys per minute.
Portion of average cardiac output =
(1,176 ml/min) of it
What is filtration pressure?
Net filtration pressure (NFT) involve tow
capsule hydrostatic pressure (CHP)
and blood colloid osmotic pressure (BOCP) and
glomerular hydrostatic pressure (GHP)
GHP - CHP - BCOP = NFT
50 mm Hg - 15 mm Hg - 25 mm Hg
= 10 mm Hg
What will cause the release of small volume of concentrated urine? How about large volume of dilute urine?
collcting ducts are permeable to water (cause water retention).
That will cause release of small volume of concentrated urine
, collecting ducts are impermeable to water.
That will cause large volume of dilute urine
How ADH changes the water permeability of the collecting duct?
ADH come from the blood and
(a vesicle that contain H
O transport channels) to be inserted into the membrane of the collecting duct cells.
That will allow H
O to be reabsorbed
What overall effects will occur as result of the renin-angiotnsing aldosterone system
Renin will activate angiotnsing.
Angiotensing II will initiate the release of aldosterone and ADH.
increase the level of Na
in the blood
that will draw H
O to the blood. That will
increase blood volume
increase blood pressure
How does aldosterone affect the kidneys?
increases re-absorption of Na
and secretion of K+
distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct
(aldosteron cause sodium retention)
What enzyme catalyzes the conversion of
(angiotensin converting enzyme)
release from the lungs.
Which secretion activates angiotensinogen?
secreted by the juxtsglomerular apparatus activates
From where angiotensinogen released?
How will secretion and re-absorption of hydrogen and bicarbonate change depending on PH?
blood PH is higher
then normal range (PH>7.45), we need to
o lower the PH fo the blood
blood PH is below
normal range (PH<7.35), we need to
to raisee blood PH
Are solutes are secreted or reabsorbed in the
convoluted tubule? What transport mechanism are used to transport those solutes?
in exchange to
in response to blood concentration
are secreted or reabsorbed as needed to stabilize blood PH level.
How countercurrent multiplication will effect concentration of filtrate?
solutes are secreted
As result the
in part of LOH
near the cortex is very dilute
deep in the medulla
What structures comprise the urinary system?