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What percent of plant fresh weight are nutrients that come from the soil?
if a grower wants good plant growth and optimum yield and fruit quality, what nutrient level should he/she strive for?
- Strive for sufficiency range (between hidden hunger and luxury consumption)
- No symptoms in sufficiency
Which plant macronutrients do not come from soil? How does the plant use them and what does it synthesize?
CHO - comes from air and water, used to make sugars, starches and other carbs
Of the macronutrients obtained from soil, which one often needs to be added yearly as fertilizer?
Most often Nitrogen
What fertilizers contain Nitrogen?
- Ammonium nitrate
- Calcium Nitrate
- Blood meals
What are two ways (besides fertilizer) a grower can be reasonably sure that fruit plants will get adequate micronutrients?
adjusting pH, adding organic matter
how can a grower get a quicker updake of a needed micronutrient in a fruit plant? How are macronutrients usually applied?
- Micro- foliar spray
- Macro - applied via soil
What macronutrients do liming materials supply?
- Magnesium, Calcium (dolomitic limestone)
- sulfur is added to lower pH
If a nutrient is mobile in plants, what part of the plant will first show the deficiency symptom?
Describe a deficiency symptom for nitrogen
short, spindly shoots, pale green to yellow - occurs in older leaves
Describe a deficiency symptom for calcium in apple or pear fruit
Cork spot or bitter pit - lesions or bumps in fruit
Describe a deficiency symptom for iron in blueberry? Where does it occur?
interveinal chlorosis - high soil pH - occurs on younger leaves
what are general plant characters of apple?
leaves are in 5s, inferior ovary, long-lived, small to medium sized 25-30 feet tall and wide, 30-50 year lifespan
what is an apple fruit called? what is the edible flesh?
- fruit is a pome
- edible flesh is receptical tissue
how can an apple grower achieve tree dwarfing?
root stocks, interstem
give examples of tree numbers per acre for low, medium, high and ultra high density apple orchards. Give an example of a rootstock that could be used to achieve these densities
- low density - 100 trees/acre - novole
- medium density - 100-135 trees/acre - MM111
- high density - 518-792 trees/acre - M9
- ultra high density - 1000-2500 trees/acre - M27
How are apple rootstocks propagated?
seeds, vegetatively (clones to get sp. rootstocks)
Give general attributes that distinguish apple cultivars
hardiness zone, storage life, disease resistance, bloom time, ripening time
What is replant disease and how might a grower manage it?
It happens when you replant in a former orchard - remove old roots, cover cropping, possibly fumigation
What should a grower do to provide for cross-pollination in an apple orchard?
Plant 2-3 different varieties, with flowering times that overlap
Describe how you would plant a semi-dwarf apple tree
- Make sure the graft union is a couple of inches above the soil
- (interstem or seedling can be planted below ground)
Describe training systems for low, medium, high, and ultra high apple tree densities
- low - modified leader
- medium high (and medium low) - mainly central leader
- high - verticle axis or slender spindle
- ultra high - trellised
how does nitrogen fertilization differ between young and mature apple trees? What is influenced by it in young and mature trees?
- More nitrogen on young (promotes vegetative growth)
- Less on older (keeps tree at a good size)
What is fruit thinning in apple trees? Why is it important?
Removing blooms (usually post-bloom) - gives bigger fruit
what can be accomplished with different irrigation practices in apple?
- evaporative cooling
- frost protection
what pests can kill an apple tree? how can they be managed?
fire blight (avoid susceptible varieties), crown rot (don't water too much), borers (avoid rootstocks that have burr knots or are susceptible)
how are apples handled from harvest to market?
- usually hand picked into canvas bags
- placed in bulk bins, rapidly cooled, culled, sized and sorted
- moved to markets or storage
- best quality goes to fresh market (can go into cold storage)
- seconds or culls go to processing
what are the benefits of irrigation in new and mature plantings?
- New - promotes vigorous growth, faster return on your investment
- mature - good survivability, prevents drought stress (which affects flower, bud initiation, fruit size)
what are the general water needs of fruit crops during the growing season?
1 inch per week in spring and fall, 2 inches in hot summer
what are the methods of irrigating fruit plantings?
microirrigation, sprinklers, furrow and flood
if an irrigation system is 80 percent efficient what does that mean?
20 percent of water is lost to evaporation - the other 80 is taken up by the plant
what are the advantages and disadvantages to drip and sprinkler irrigation
- drip - doesn't wet foliage, more frequent irrigations needed, require clean water supply and relatively flat ground
- sprinkler - investment can be higher because you need larger pipes and pumps, more foliar wetting, less frequent irrigations needed, can provide frost protection
what is the difference between flood and furrow irrigation? what are the general requirements for these systems?
- flood - whole orchard floor
- furrow - a ridge down the rows
- In general, need loamy soils and narrow spaced crops
what is the purpose of irrigation scheduling?
make sure your crops are getting enough water and you aren't wasting any
what are the methods of irrigation scheduling?
- evaporation measurement
- crop water budget
- soil water status
what might be a reason to use fertigation as a means of supplying a micronutrient to a fruit crop?
less equipment passes, lower fuel use
what irrigation systems are used in fertigation?
sprinkler, micro, drip
soil characteristics that can be altered by fertigation? what nutrient is usally responsible for this?
- Nitrogen is the culprit
what piece of equipment is required in an irrigation line to prevent chemical contamination of the water source?
what general plant characteristics distinguish pear from apple?
- upright growth habit
- doesn't spread out like apple
- fruit appearance
- pear trees live longer
what general plant characters of pear and apple are similar?
both fairly long lived, both pomes, eat receptacle tissue, inferior flowers, fruit on spurs
what is the cultivar base for European pear and where are they grown commercially?
- Bartlet, D'Anjou, Bradford
what site selection considerations are important for pear production?
pear is earlier blooming and more frost susceptible so north slopes, good air drainage, near bodies of water, moderate soil drainage
are pear and apple alike or different in their pollination requirements?
- alike in that they're self-infertile
- different in that pear blossoms aren't as attractive to bees
what growth characteristics of pear makes it important to train properly and how is it done?
upright - use spreaders for limb, tie trellis wires
how is pruning done in pear to minimize fire blight?
modified central leader because if fire blight hits the leader there are others, minimize dormant pruning to keep fast spring growth down
how is nitrogen managed in pear production and for what reason?
minimize nitrogen use and apply later in the season (not spring)
what is irrigation used for in pear production and how is it done?
needed because semi-arid regions, frost protections
what is thinning and why is it important in pear production?
- important because of fruit size, return bloom, avoiding limb breakage because they're profuse bloomers
- remove blooms post bloom
how is fire blight managed in pear?
minimize nitrogen use, modified central leader, avoid wetting foliage during times fire blight is most common
how do european and asian pears differ when picked at harvest?
- europe - ripens off tree
- asian - picked ripe
how do european and asian pears differ in fruit texture at ripeness?
fruit texture is soft and melting in european and crips in asian
name five fruit maturity indices used in pear
- days from bloom
- flesh firmness
- soluble soilds
- groundcolor change
- lenticels turn brown when ripen
- iodine starch
what is conditioning in eurpean pear and how is it done?
- brings european pears closer to ripeness
- treated with ethylene gas
when can dold damage occur on fruit crops and what are the cold damage events?
- winter - temperature minimums, fluctuating temperatures
- spring - frosts
how can good cold acclimation be promoted in fruit crops?
work towards hardening off the plant - no fertilizer past midsummer, no irrigation past early fall, allow groundcover competition in early fall, no pruning past midsummer, delay dormant pruning
what are methods of avoiding or minimizing winter damage?
white interior latex paint, treeguards, caging
what is a proactive approach (prior to planting) to avoid spring frost damage? what is an orchard management practice that can be used to protect against spring frost damage?
plant crops that work in your hardiness zone, spray to reduce damage, floating row covers, sprinklers, wind, heating
what is critical temperature for buds in fruit crops? how does it vary with bud stage? when are buds most injury prone?
- roughly 30 degrees or lower for open buds
- temperature varies depending on species and bud stages
- as the bud becomes more developed, it becomes more vulnerable to cooler temps
describe the environmental conditions when radiation frost occurs? how does air layer during this frost and what is it called?
- clear night, little wind
- warm air layers over cold air
- temperature inversion
describe the environmental conditions that advective freeze occurs?
windy - cold air moves in and replaces warm air (can be clear or cloudy)
what methods would you consider for minimizing radition frost damage on fruit crops?
monitor forecasts, monitor temp at multiple locations in the orchard, bare, moist soils, cover crops mowed before frost season, mow between row, sod short, areas under plant vegetation free
what methods would you consider for minimizing advective freeze damage on fruit crops?
elevated site, windbreaks, adjacent water, late blooming cultivars
what methods can be used to mix stratified air layers? what is brought near the ground?
wind machines and helicopters - bring warm air to ground
what is heat of fusion and how is it used in fruit production?
water, as it turns to ice, releases heat - keeps blossoms above critical bud killing temperature
how must sprinkler irrigation for frost control be managed for lower temps and higher wind?
increase water applications
what is the difference between a peach and a nectarine
nothing but fuzz
what is the term that is used to describe the fruit of peach and nectarine? what kind and number of ovaries are there for a peach or nectarine fruit?
- single, superior ovary
what does precocious bearing habit mean?
where are flowers borne on peach and nectarine?
single flowers on one year shoots
what are some site selection needs for peach and nectarine?
elevated site, good air drainage (USDA zone 5 in northern limit)
what do rootstocks accomplish in peach and nectarine?
cold resistance, nematode resistance
what fruit characteristics usually distinguish different cultivars of peach and nectarine?
yellow or white, sweet or tart, very sweet and low acid or sweet/tart
if we want a peach or nectarine cultivar that blooms later, what chilling requirement should it have?
high chill cultivars, 950-1000 hours
if you plant a peach or nectarine cultivar in a southern region of the US, what chilling requirement should it have?
roughly 200-300 - definitely below 500
why do peach growers usually plant several cultivars with different maturity times?
It spreads out the harvest. Most cultivars will produce for 10 days to 2 weeks
What is the usual training method for peach? what tree planting density is used for this training system?
- quad v
- open center - for low density
besides training, what else does pruning accomplish in peach and nectarine culture?
- controls tree size and reduces excess crop load
- (because there's no good dwarfing stock, we want to reduce the use of ladders)
what nutrient promotes growth in peach and nectarine trees and why is that important?
- because blossoms occur on one-year old shoots, we want to encourage their growth
what is the pollination requirement for peach and nectarine?
self fruitful, no pollinizer cultivar needed, bees transfer pollen
what is thinning and what does it accomplish? how is it done?
taking small fruit off (2-3 weeks after bloom) - increase fruit size and sugar level
what does summer pruning accomplish in peach and nectarine?
reduce vegetative growth, imprvoves fruit color
what maturity indices are used to determine harvest in peach and nectarine?
- groundcolor change (light green to yellow)
- not completely hard, but a slight give to the peach
how are peach and nectarine fruit picked and what condition are they for fresh market sales? what do you try to avoid in handling peach or nectarine?
- most hand picked
- avoid harvest during heat of day
- avoid bruising
- keep in shade while loading
- fresh market - ripe but slightly firm
- processing - mechanically harvested firm
what pest management technique uses economic thresholds?
- If pest damage exceeds an economic threshold, it's time to treat
what general types of pests have low and high economic thresholds and why?
- low economic - pests that reduce crops and kill plant
- higher - insects that feed on leaves, shoots, woody parts
what methods can be used to increase fruit plant tolerance to pest arthropods?
genetic resistance, good health (so pruning, fertilizing, irrigating)
what is biocontrol? how does a grower encourage it?
encourage natural enemies of pests. avoid broad spectrum pesticides, alternative food sources, groundcover plants, pollen and nectar sources
how can a grower determine if pest arthropods are in his orchard?
how does insect pest mating disruption work?
put phermones in trees - it confuses the males so they can't locate females
how are degree days used in pest arthropod management?
determines when the arthropods hatch
what is particle film technology and how does it work?
you spray a film on the trees - it's a physical barrier that pests don't like
does selective or broad spectrum chemical use lead to resistant pest populations? why?
broad spectrum does because it kills off beneficials and parasites
what is required for plant disease to develop?
- susceptible host
what practices can be used in disease management? which are proactive and which are remedial?
- proactive - genetic resistance, plant site with good drainage, raised beds
- remedial - chemical sprays
in order to take remedial action against pest damage, what equipment is needed?
what should be considered when mixing pesticides in water? can spray volume per acre vary?
- nozzle selection and sprayer calibration - you need to know how much you're spraying
- spray volume per acre can vary depending on how many trees
what methods can be used for mammal and bird management? examples of each?
- exclusion (trunk guards, electric fencing, nettings)
- scare devices (propane cannons, shotgun shells, scare balloons)
- repellent substances (blood meal human hair, rotted eggs, concord grape flavor)
- biological control (hawks, owls, snakes)
- hunting, trapping, poison baits
what are the fruit characteristics of japanese, european and american plums?
- all are drupes
- japanese - large round to heart shape, juicy red, yellow black skin, amber yellow or red flesh
- european - large, oval shaped blue-purple skin with amber yellow flesh
- americcan - small, round red or yellow skin and flesh, tart, grow wild
what are the general cold hardiness levels of japanese, european and american plums?
- japanese - tender (usda 6-9)
- european - warmer regions (5-7)
- american - v. cold hardy (3-5)
what are plant characteristics of japanese, european and american plums?
- japanese- small, spreading tree 15-20 ft
- european - similar to j. but more upright
- american - shrublike, forms thicket
are flowers and fruit of blum born more like apple or peach? what is the structure they are born on called?
flower mostly on spurs (like apple), but also on one year old wood (peach)
how do planting sites for japanese and european plums differ? what is used in plum nursery stock to allow growth on well drained and moderately drained soils?
- european - more level, like apples
- japanese - elevated, n facing slope because more frost prone
- can use peach or plum rootstock - plum for moderate soil drainage
selection of plum cultivars is based on what characteristics?
cold hardiness, chilling hours, disease resistance, fresh eating or processed
what are the pollination requirements of japanese, european, and american plums?
- japanese - self unfruitful need pollinizer cultivar
- european - self fruitful mostly (some are not)
- american and plumcots - self unfruitful
- bees needed
what are the methods of training japanese and european plums? what other fruit crops are trained these ways?
- open center - japanese plum and plumcot for low/medium density, quad v for high density
- eurpoean - central leader for medium density, vertical axis for high density
when would you prune japanese and european plums during the dormant season? what importing pruning cuts would be made on mature bearing trees?
- japanese plum pruned late in dormant season, summer pruning used
- eurpoean plum can be pruned throughout dormant season
- spur pruning done yearly to keep spurs productive
what is thinning, why is it practiced on prunes and how is it done?
- removal of buds - should thin so fruit are 3-4 inches apart
- methods same as peach - bloom thinning chemicals, mechanical, hand, high pressure water
how could a grower minimize pest problems that kill plum trees?
graft using plum rootstocks (not peach)
what are the methods of harvesting plum and what markets are they used for?
- hand harvest fresh market
- machine harvest (shake and catch) for processing
what maturity indices are used to determine harvest in plums?
ground color change, firmness, soluble solids
what is the usual harvest season length for any give plum cultivar and how often are trees picked?
2-4 pickings over an 8 to 14 day harvest period
how are plums used for prunes handled after harvest?
washed, spread on trays and stacked, placed in a dehydrator tunnel, refrigerated storage, pitted, inspected, packaged
what event is required for fruit to set and grow? what facilitates this event?
- insects facilitate
what kind of habitat promotes pollinators?
- for native bees - diverse vegetation (pastures, hedgerows, woodlands)
- honey bees like groundflowers so mow orchard floors before groundcover flowers
are there alternatives to honey bees for pollination? what might a grower promote them?
- native bees like mason and bumble
- they work harder - 300 masons = 6000 honey
what can good pollination lead the need for? what are its benefits?
- good pollination can lead to too much fruit
- benefits include increased fruit size and sweetness, decreased biennial bearing, reduced plant stress, reduced branch breakage
what can a grower do to reduce the number of flower buds on a fruit plant? when can it be done?
- fruit thinning
- within three weeks of bloom for greatest benefit
what is june drop?
trees drop some of their excess fruit (ususally flowers that didn't get pollinated or pollinated well)
when should fruit thinning be done for the greatest benefit? what should be removed?
- within three weeks of bloom
- remove smaller fruits, damaged fruit
name some post-bloom thinners. what do they mimic? what do they thin?
- stimulates ethylene production
- synthetic auxins, cytokinens
- selectively remove small, weak fruit
- ethepon, accel, carbaryl
name some pgrs and their uses other than thinning
- progibb, accel, promalin, apogee
- prevent preharvest drop (NAA, NAD), increase fruit size (progibb), increase side branching and apple fruit length (promalin)
what other factor greatly influences fruit size?
- enhance with dwarf trees, north-south rows, training and pruning systems, reflective mulches
how do sweet and tart cherries differ in their winter and summer temp requirements? how are they alike?
- sweet are sensitve to winter cold and summer heat
- tart more cold hardy but sensitive to summer heat
how do sweet and tart cherries differ in their tree characteristics?
- sweet - big trees (50 feet), big leaves, bears 5-7 years, lives 30-35 years
- tart - smaller (20 ft), 3-4 years to bearing, 20-25 year lifespan
how do sweet and tart cherries differ in their flower bearing and bloom habits?
- sweet - bearing in 5-7 years, bloom very early, fruit on long lived spurs
- tart - bear in 3-4 years, bloom later, fruit on short-lived spurs and one-year old shoots
how do sweet and tart cherries differ in their fruit characteristics?
- sweet - larger, firm-flesh, sweeter
- tart - smaller, juicy, tart
how do sweet and tart cherries differ in how they are marketed?
- sweet - fresh market nearly 60%, also maraschino and canned
- tart - all juice
what site requirements are needed for sweet cherry? why? are tart cherries different in their site needs?
sweet - need good site so not subject to spring frost, tart need good air drainage
how do sweet and tart cherries differ in their pollination requirements?
- sweet - mostly self-unfruitful
- tart - self-fruitful
what training systems are used for low density cherry orchards?
open center, modified central leader
what practices are used in young cherry tree training?
heading cuts, branch spreading, growth regulations, scoring, bud removal
what pruning cuts are used to remove excess spurs? why is this done?
- heading and thinning cuts
- cherries have a lot of spurs
why are large pruning cuts avoided during dormant pruning of cherry?
large cuts are subject to bacterial canker
what methods are used to minimize spring frost damage on cherry?
overhead sprinkler irrigation, orchard heaters, wind machines (for inversion frosts)
is fruit thinning an important practice in cherry production? why or why not?
- not done - small fruit size, higher fruit numbers needed
- crop load adjusted during dormant season pruning
what does heavy rainfall cause in sweet cherry production? how can it be avoided?
- fruit cracking
- crack-resistant cultivars, irrigation management (no irrigation near harvest), calcium chloride and surfactant sprays
what maturity indices are used in determining cherry harvest?
skin color development, soluble solids, fruit removal force
what determines if cherry is machine or hand harvested? what is used to loosen fruit?
- hand harvest - fresh market
- machine harvest (shake and catch) for processing - ethephon growth regulator for fruit loosening