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  1. §  muscular weakness or partial paralysis on one side of
    the body
  2. §  :   loss of normal bladder function in which the bladder
    cannot empty properly and fills beyond the normal capacity, causing urine to
    leak out; caused by damage to part of the nervous system due to stroke,
    Parkinson’s disease, MS, disk herniation, etc.
    neurogenic bladder
  3. §  first involves the parts of the brain
    that control thought, memory and language; may affect a person’s short-term
    memory; the person may not recognize family members or have trouble speaking,
    reading or writing; they may forget how to brush their teeth or comb their
    hair; later, may become anxious or aggressive, or wander from home, and
    eventually, they need total care; usually
    begins after age 60 and is more likely to occur if there is a family history
    alzheimer's dementia
  4. §  general
    term describing problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, memory and other
    thought processes caused by brain damage from impaired blood flow to your
    brain; may develop after a stroke blocks an artery to the brain or from other
    conditions that damage blood vessels and reduce circulation, which can deprive
    the brain of oxygen and nutrients
    vascular dementia
  5. disease in which
    bones become fragile and more likely to fracture. Usually the bone loses
    density, which measures the amount of calcium and minerals in the bone.
  6. anemia
    (blood with low concentration of hemoglobin) in which the rbc’s are larger than
    normal; occurs when there are problems with the
    synthesis of the blood cells, as in vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency
    macrocytic anemia
  7. :  type of
    macrocytic anemia; cells are larger than normal; due to slow rate of DNA
    production as the rbc’s grow, and thus the cells grow too large before
    division; associated with B12 or folic acid deficiency that is often related to
    chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral drugs; in
    patients with liver disease and obstructive jaundice, cholesterol and/or
    phospholipids become deposited on the membranes of circulating red blood cells,
    leading to larger than normal cells
    megaloblastic anemia
  8. :   dry mouth resulting from reduced or absent saliva flow
  9. ·       distortion of the sense of taste
    (different from ageusia or hypogeusia, which are lack of taste and low ability
    to taste, respectively)
  10. often
    seen right after someone has a stroke; person has severe difficulty speaking and
    understanding words & is unable to read or write.
    global aphasia

  11. destruction of the stomach lining due to chronic inflammation, which is
    most often caused by H. Pylori infection; the bacteria disrupt the mucosal
    barrier the protects the stomach lining from acidic digestive juices
    atrophic gastritis
  12. ·       curving of the spine that causes bowing or rounding of
    the thoracic vertebrae
    kyphosis; aka hunchback
  13. ·       wasting syndrome characterized by dramatic weight loss,
    muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness, and loss of appetite; often associated with
  14. ·       malnutrition resulting from lack of dietary protein
    concurrent with sufficient energy intake; characterized by edema, irritability,
    anorexia, and liver enlargement with fatty infiltrates;
  15. :  severe
    malnutrition in which all forms of energy intake is insufficient, including
    protein intake; emaciation; mostly associated with acute infection, chronic
    illness (TB, HIV), droughts; ultimately, marasmus
    can progress to the point of no return when the body's ability for protein synthesis is lost. At this point, attempts to correct the
    disorder by giving food or protein are futile.
  16. diff b/w kwashiorkor and marasmus
    • kwashiorkor:  malnutrition resulting from lack of dietary protein concurrent with sufficient energy intake
    • marasmus:  severe malnutrition in which all forms of energy intake is insufficient, including protein intake; emaciation
  17. A hormone secreted by
    the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland that increases blood pressure by
    constricting blood vessels, raises blood pressure, and reduces excretion of
    urine; increases the reabsorption of water by the kidney tubules
    antidiuretic hormone
  18. substance that promotes the urine production;
    commonly used to treat high BP; chemically, diuretics are a diverse group of
    compounds that either stimulate or inhibit various hormones in body to regulate
    urine production by kidneys
  19. a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen; may
    be low due to anemia, loss of blood, kidney failure; may be high due to
  20. ·       blood test that measures the
    percentage of the volume of whole blood that is made up of red blood cells.
    This measurement depends on the number of red blood cells and the size of red blood cells; may
    be low due to anemia, loss of blood; may be high due to dehydration
  21. the average
    volume of a red blood cell, or its size; allows classification of anemia
    mean cell volume (MCV)
  22. diff b/c microcytic and macrocytic anemia
    MCV (cell size) that is below normal is microcytic anemia and MCV that is above normal is macrocytic anemia
  23. most abundant plasma protein; made by the liver;
    serves as carrier protein for certain molecules through the blood, such as
    bilirubin and calcium
  24. a protein that is made in the liver and released
    in the blood; ·      
    its concentration more closely reflects recent dietary intake rather
    than overall nutritional status

  25. iron-storage protein that is produced by the liver and is present in
    blood that binds to iron and transports it throughout the body;
  26. transferrin levels ___ with iron deficiency and ___ in iron overload; the remainder of iron is stored in tissues as ferritin
    • increase
    • decrease
  27. test that shows amount of protein in blood; when protein breaks down, urea nitrogen is formed
    BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
  28. national
    collaborative effort committed to the identification and treatment of
    nutritional problems in older persons
    Nutrition Screening Initiative
  29. :  part of
    the Older Americans Act; grants that are appropriated to the Administration on
    Aging for 3 different nutrition programs: 
    Congregate Nutrition Services, Home-Delivered Nutrition Services,
    Nutrition Services Incentive Program
    Title III-C
  30. type of
    advance directive that is a legal document that describes your treatment
    preferences in end-of-life situations
    Living Will
  31. area of healthcare that focuses on relieving and
    preventing pain and the suffering of patients in all aspects of his/her life
    via a multidisciplinary approach; different from hospice in that patient can be
    in any disease stage
    palliative care
  32. general term for documents that indicate a
    patient’s preferences for medical care in times when the patient is unable to
    speak for himself; include living will, medical power of attorney, and do not
    resuscitate order
    Advanced Directives
  33. refers to an ulcer formed while laying in one spot for
    an extended amount of time, while a pressure ulcer is usually from sitting.
    decubitus ulcer
  34. ·       piece of dead tissue that is cast off from the surface of
    the skin, particularly after a burn injury, but also  in gangrene, ulcer, fungal infections; may come off naturally or may require surgical
  35. ·       death of body tissue due to insufficient blood flow
    from injury, radiation, or chemicals
  36. Stage I pressure ulcer
    Stage II pressure ulcer
    Stage III pressure ulcer
    Stage IV pressure ulcer
    • ·       Stage I Pressure Ulcer:  area on skin that does not turn white upon
    • pressing
    • ·       Stage II Pressure Ulcer:  skin blisters or forms an open sore;
    • surrounding tissue may be red and irritated
    • ·       Stage III Pressure Ulcer:  open, sunken hole called a crater; damage to
    • tissue below the skin
    • ·       Stage IV Pressure Ulcer:  deep ulcer, damage to muscle and bone, and
    • possibly tendons and joints
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