is the existence of structured inequalities between groups in society, in terms of their access to material or symbolic rewrds. While all societies involve some forms of stratification, only with the development of state-based systems did wide differences in wealth and power arise. The most distinctive form of stratification in modern societies in class divisions.
class, status, and powerq
What are life chances?
is a term introduced by Max weber to signify a person's opportunities for achieving economic prosperity.
the opportunities you have for achieving economic prosperity.
What is social class?
refer to socioeconomic variations between groups of individuals that create variations in their material prosperity and power.
is a large group of people who occupy a similar economic position in the wider society.
What is socio-economic status- ses?
What is class consciousness and structure in the U.s?
What is the Kuznets curve?
a formula showing that inequality increase during the early stages of capitalist development, then declines, and eventually stabilizes at a relatively low level, advanced by the economist simon kuzn
What is Bourgeoisie?
by Karl Marx who defined it as owners of capital.
What is social mobility?
is the movement of individuals or groups between different social positions as a result of changes in occcupation, wealth, or income.
What is intergenerational mobility?
is the moviement up or down a social stratificaiton hierarchy from one generation to another.
What is intragenerational mobility?
is the movement up or down a social stratification hierarchy within the course of a personal career.
What is absolute poverty?
is the minimal requirements necessary to sustain a healthy existence.
What is relative poverty?
is poverty defined according to the living standards of the majority in any given society.
Who are the working poor?
the people who work, but whose earnings are not enough to lift them above the poverty line.
What is the feminization of poverty?
is an increase in the proportion of the poor who are female.
What is social exclusion?
is the outcome of multiple deprivations that prevent individuals or groups from participating fully in the economic, social, and political life of the society in which they live.
What are the means of production?
are the means whereby the production of material goods is carried on in a society, including not just technology but the social relations between producers.
What is surplus value?
is the value of a worker's labor power, in Marxist theory, left over when an employer has repaid the cost of hiring the worker.
What is social closure?
is the practices by which groups separate themselves from other groups.
What is the functionalist theory?
A sociological theory that attempts to determine the functions, or uses, of the main ways in which a society is organized.
What is the conflict theory?
arguement that deviance is deliberately chosen and often political in nature.