303_CH11

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Author:
itzlinds
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245268
Filename:
303_CH11
Updated:
2013-11-06 11:16:35
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understanding improving body composition
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understanding and improving body composition
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  1. th absolute amount of fat and nonfat tissue within the body, as well as the ratio of fat to total body mass (TBM) is called:
    body composition
  2. the total mass of all fat within the body is called:
    fat mass
  3. the total mass of all tissues within the body excluding fat is called:
    fat-free mass (FFM)
  4. the ratio of TBM to total FM (or FM divided by TBM) is called:
    percent body fat (% fat)
  5. body composition refers to the chemical composition of the body, list the 3 models:
    • chemical model
    • fat
    • protein
    • CHO
    • water
    • mineral

    • anatomical model
    • adipose tissue
    • muscle
    • organs
    • bone
    • other

    • two component model
    • fat mass
    • fat-free mass
  6. explain how 2 individuals with the same TBM can have different body compositions:
    differences in % fat result in differeces in underwater weight, body density, FM and FFM
  7. define overweight in regards to BMI:

    define obese in regards to BMI:
    • overweight: 25.0 to 29.9 BMI
    • obese: equal to or greater than 30.0 BMI

    • 300,000 people die each year from obesity-related disease
    • 65% of adults are either overweight or obese
    • 31% are obese
    • pervalence of obesity is rapidly increasing
  8. list the 10 diseases accosicated with obesity:
    • cardiovascular disease & atherosclerosis
    • hypertension
    • negative effects on blood lipid profiles
    • type 2 diabetes
    • sleep apnea
    • osteoarthritis
    • complication in pregancy & surgery
    • cancer (uterine, kidney, colorectal, esophageal)
    • gallbladder disease
  9. list the 5 factors that can cause obesity:
    • ingesting more calories than are expected (overeating)
    • genetics: the inability to produce leptin, a hormone like substance signals sufficent fat stores
    • alterations in appetite control: disrupted signals in satiety
    • physical inactivity
    • cultural factors: abundance of high-calorie, high-fat food readily available, large portion sizes
  10. how would the body composition of a person with Higher % fat or FM, but the same FFM as another affect physcial performance:
    • increased TBM to carry in physical activities, reducing performance
    • decreased relative peak oxygen consumption

    conversely, greater FFM may be an advantage in absolute strength measurements
  11. what are 2 correlations between body composition & physical performance task depend on:
    • measure of body composition
    • the physcial performance task examined
  12. the measurement and study of the body is called:
    anthropometry
  13. list the 5 qualitites that body size refers to:
    • total body mass
    • height and stature
    • body circumferences
    • bone breadths
    • limb length

    body size varies greatly between athletes of different sports & impacts performance in some sports & activites
  14. ratio of body mass divided by height is called:

    what type of health risks is this measurement a good indicator of:
    • body mass index
    • BMI= weight x 703/height (in)
    • BMI = weight (kg)/height (m2)

    • good indicator
    • obesity
    • severe underweight status
    • % fat
  15. list the classification for the following ranges of BMI:

    < 18.5:
    18.5-24.9:
    25.0 - 29.9:
    30.0 - 34.9:
    35.0 - 39.9:
    >40.0:
    • <18.5: underweight
    • 18.5 - 24.9: normal
    • 25.0 - 29.9: overweight
    • 30.0 - 34.9: obesity class I
    • 35.0 - 39.9: obesity class II
    • >40.0: obesity class III
  16. the determination of body composition from the body's density is called:

    TBM divided by the volume of the body is called:

    list 2 methodologies for determining this:
    • densitometry
    • TBM divided by the volume of the body is called: body density

    • 2 methods
    • hydrostatic weighing: the subject is totally immersed in water
    • siri equation: %Fat=(495/body density)-450

    • body density varies with body compostion
    • assumptions involved in this method lead to some error
  17. describe how hydrostatic weighing "works":

    what are some possible errors with the method:

    compare the density of two people with the same body mass, and one with a higher % fat:
    when submerged under water, a person is pushed up toward the surface with a force equivalent to the weight of the volume of water displaced, causing underwater weight to be less than TBM

    errors: volume of air in lungs cant be measured or estimated, many people cannot exhale all the air (appears as a higher % Fat), siri- assumes density of FM and FFM are constant but there is some variablitliy

    • compare a person with high % fat
    • fat (adipose tissue) has a density that is greater than water, therefore sinks.
    • Fat is less dense than FFM, the individual with a higher % fat will have a greater body volume, and therefore a lower underwater weight
  18. a method of estimating body composition that involves pinching and measuring the thickness of the skin and subcutaneous fat is called:

    what does this method predict:
    how are measurements obtained:
    • a method of estimating body composition that involves pinching and measuring the thickness of the skin and subcutaneous fat is called: skinfolds
    • predicts: body density, then used in the siri equation to predict % Fat
    • measurements obtained by: performed at specific anatomical sites with special calipers
    • convenient & widely used method
    • less accurate than hydrostatic weighing
    • population specific equations have been developed (men vs. women)
  19. a densitometry technique used to determine body composition with air displacement to determine body volume is called:

    describe how this method works:
    a densitometry technique used to determine body composition with air displacement to determine body volume is called: air displacement plethysmography

    • how the method works
    • the volume of the air in the chamber when empty is known
    • when a person enters the air tight chamber, he displaces his own volume
    • volume of air left in the chamber is determined
    • body volume = air volume of empty chamber - air volume of occupied chamber

    • body volume is used in equations to fine body density & % Fat
    • generally as accurate as hydrostatic weighing, with some differences for specific populations
  20. a determination of body composition that involves placing electrodes at two or more places on the body and passing an undetectable electrical current between the electrodes is called :

    explain how the method works:
    a determination of body composition that involves placing electrodes at two or more places on the body is called: bioelectrical impedance

    • how it works
    • FFM contains more water than fat tissue, therefore electrical conduction is greater and impedance or resistance to electrical current is lower in FFM than in fat tissue

    • FM, FFM, and total body water is determined
    • several types of equipment are available with different accuracy
    • generally as accurate as other indirect methods
  21. a method that uses low-energy x-ray beams & computer software to produce images of the body that can be used to determine body composition is called:

    what is a major advantage to this method:
    • a method that uses low-energy x-ray beams & computer software to produce images of the body that can be used to determine body composition is called: dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
    • advantage: can determine general & regional body composition, highly reliable
    • sensitive to small changes in body compostion
    • significant correlations with hydrostatic weighing
    • considered the "gold standard" in measurement of body compositon
  22. list three other methods used to measure body composition that are less frequently used:
    • total body water measurements: a solution of water containing a known concentration of an isotope or marker is ingested, determined by the water necessary to dilute the marker to the concentration present in the sample of body water
    • MRI:  cross section of the body

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