ANS (1).txt

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Corissa.Stovall
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245280
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ANS (1).txt
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2013-11-05 21:56:41
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A&P Exam 4
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  1. SNS post ganglionic neurons outnumber the preganglionic neurons by how much
    20:1 or 30:1
  2. What does large sympathetic ganglion at adrenal medulla release
    80% epi and 20% nor epi
  3. What is mass sympathetic discharge
    increase in arterial bp, heart rate and contractility, blood flow to muscles, blood glucsose, metabolic rate, muscle strength, mental activity, and blood coagulation
  4. What does mass sympathetic discharge prepare the body for
    vigorous activity needed to deal with life threatening situations
  5. Sympathetic stimulation can also occur in isolated parts such as where (3)
    heat regulation- control sweating

    local reflexes

    many of the sympathetic reflexes that control GI funtion
  6. The Vagus nerve transmits what % of traffic of the PNS
    75%
  7. PNS pre post ganglionic fiber ratio
    1:1 or 1:2 except in enteric plexus

    very different from SNS
  8. Where are preganglionic cell bodies of SNS located
    in visceral motor region of spinal gray matter
  9. What is the highest level of intergration of ANS
    Cerebral cortex
  10. What is the principle ANS organizational area of the brain
    hypothalmus
  11. SNS functions are controlled by nuclei in the
    posterior-lateral hypothalmus
  12. PNS functions are controlld by the nuclei in the
    midline and portions of anterior nuclei of hypothalmus
  13. The anterior hypothalamus is responsible for what
    temp regulation
  14. The supra optic hypothalamus is responsible for what
    regulates water metabolism
  15. Where does efferent SNS cell body originate

    Where does it pass through
    Dorso-lumbar- in intermedio-lateral gray column of T1-L2 and L1-L3

    It passes through anterior root of cord to corresponding spinal nerve
  16. Each sympathetic pathway from the cord is composed of how many neurons
    2
  17. Control by PSN is
    highly specific

    ex: cardiovascular reflex work to only increase or decrease the rate of beating

    rectal emptying does not affect other portions of the bowel
  18. Origin of PNS
    • Craniosacral
    • Cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X

    And sacral areas S2-S4
  19. Distribution of SNS
    wide
  20. Distribution of PNS
    Limited to head, neck, and trunk
  21. SNS ganglia are where
    away from organs
  22. PNS ganglia are where
    on or close to organ
  23. Post ganglionic fibers of SNS long or short
    long
  24. Post ganglionic fibers of PNS long or short
    short
  25. Transmitter of SNS
    nor-adrenaline (nor epi)-- major one

    acetylcholine --- minor
  26. Transmitter of PNS
    acetylcholine
  27. Stability of neurotransmitter of SNS
    stable, differ for wider activity
  28. stability of neurotransmitter of PNS
    ACH is rapidly destroyed locally
  29. Important function of SNS
    • tackling stress and emergency
    • Fight or flight

    • "E" division
    • exercise, excitement, emergency, and embaressment
  30. Important fx of PNS
    processing of food, conservation of energy

    Rest and digest

    • "D" division
    • Digestion, defecation, and diuresis
  31. What is an example of antagonist control of ANS
    • when PNS and SNS both exhibit response
    • SNS increases heart rate, and PNS decreases heart rate
  32. What is exception to antagonism rule of ANS
    PNS and SNS work together to achieve male sexual fx
  33. What to all autonomic preganglionic neurons release what
    ACH onto cholinergic nicotinic receptors
  34. Most post ganglionic SNS release what
    NE onto adrenergic receptors

    except sweat glands and BV
  35. Most post ganglionic neurons of PNS release what
    ACH onto cholinergic receptors
  36. What are the endogenous catecholamines in humans
    dopamine, NE (stored in nerve endings), and EPI
  37. The release of NE is dependent upon
    •depolarization of the nerve and an increase calcium ion permeability.
  38. Inactivation of catecholamines (3)

    ** the first one is highlighted in notes
    reuptake into the presynaptic terminals (an active energy requiring temperature dependent process that can be inhibited)

    extraneuronal uptake

    diffusion into circulation
  39. Where are muscarinic receptors located
    on all effector cells
  40. where are nicotinic receptors located
    at the autonomic ganglia between the pre and post ganglionic neurons in BOTH THE SNS AND THE PNS
  41. where are Nicotinic M  receptors located and what are they
    neuromuscular junction

    they are ligand gated ion channels
  42. Where are Nicotinic N receptors located and what do they do
    located in autonomic ganglia

    they decrease cardiac activity
  43. Muscarine receptors work at what site
    all post ganglionic PNS

    few post ganglionic in SNS
  44. Nicotinic N work at what site
    Ganglia of both PNS and SNS

    Adrenal medulla
  45. Nicotinic M works at what site
    skeletal muscle
  46. Muscarinic and nicotinic both work at what sites
    CNS (cortex, basal ganglia, spinal cord, and other sites)
  47. Adrenergic receptors are broken down into what two categories
    alpha receptors and beta receptors

    • alpha= a1 and a2
    • beta= b1, b2, and b3
  48. cholinergic receptors are broken down into what two categories
    muscarinic= m1, m2, m3, m4, and m5

    nicotinic= nm, and nn
  49. alpha receptors are _______ -coupled receptors
    G
  50. Alpha 1 receptors result in increased in intracellular _____ which leads to smooth muscle ______
    calcium

    contraction
  51. alpha 2 receptors decrease _______ activity and result in smooth muscle ______.
    cAMP

    contraction
  52. What secretes Epi and NE
    adrenal medulla
  53. adrenergic means
    method of transmission that has to do with adrenaline (epi) or dopamine
  54. non-adrenergic means
    method of transmission that does not have to do with adrenergic neurotransmitters (epi, nor epi, and dopamine)
  55. Stimulating a1 adrenergic receptor (post synaptic) in uterus causes
    contraction
  56. stimulating a1 adrenergic receptor (post synaptic) in liver causes
    increase in glycogenesis
  57. presynaptic activation of a2 leads to
    inhibition of NE release and produces vasodilation
  58. what is the most potent vasoconstrictor of all the catecholamines
    norepi
  59. a2 agonists=____

    post synaptic activation and response:
    kidney tubules
    pancreatic islets
    smooth muscle of most veins
    nerve terminals
    • agonists=epi>nor epi> Iso clonidine
    • Kidney tubules= H2O and Na secretion (a1= Na and H20 reabsorption)
    • Pancreas= decreased insulin release
    • Smooth muscle= contraction
    • nerve terminals= decreased release of Epi
  60. B2 receptors usually cause
    relaxation and dilation
  61. B2 agonist=

    Post synaptic B2 receptor tissue and response
    blood vessels
    airway
    liver hepatocytes
    pancreas
    • Iso>Epi>NE terbutaline
    • blood vessels=dilation
    • airway=dilation
    • liver hepatocytes= glycogenolysis
    • pancreas= increased glucagon= high blood sugar
  62. how does b2 post synaptic receptor effect K+ levels
    increase potassium uptake= HYPOKALEMIA
  63. presynaptic b2 receptors release
    NE leads to vasoconstriction

    **post synaptic = vasodilation
  64. Where are b1 and b2 receptor present in
    myocardium
  65. B1 agonist=

     tissue response of  
    juxtaglomerular cells
    heart
    Iso>epi>NE dobutamine

    juxt= increased renin secretion

    heart= increased force and rate of contraction, and av nodal conduction velocity
  66. a1 agonists=

    Tissue and response=
    vascular smooth muscle
    GU smooth muscle
    Liver
    Intestinal smooth muscle
    Heart
    epi>NE>Iso phenlyepherine

    • Vascular smooth muscle= contraction
    • GU smooth muscle=contraction
    • Liver= glycogenolysis
    • Intestinal smooth muscle= hyperpolarization and relaxation
    • Heart=increased contractile force, arrythmias
  67. Oculo-cardiac reflex is stimulated by what

    What are effects of this
    • traction or extaoccular muscle
    • pressure on eyeball
    • increase in intraocular pressure

    Sinus brady, cardiac dysrhythmia, ventricular fibrillation, and asystole
  68. Carotid sinus reflex is stimulated by what


    What are effects of this
    • Increased heart rate and blood pressure
    • ***can stimulate with intubation or if patient is scared

    decreased bp and heart rate
  69. Nasocardiac reflex is stimulated by what? **highlighted in notes

    What are effects of this
    irritation of nasal canal (by nasal specules, nasal retractor, or ET tube) WHEN ANESTHESIA IS INADEQUATE

    Decreased heart rate and blood pressure
  70. pharyngeal reflex is stimulated by what


    what are effects of this
    an airway introduced in anesthesia that is to light, irritation by mucosa


    swallowing followed by laryngospasm
  71. tracheal reflex is stimulated by what


    what is effect of this
    et intubation, cuff irritation, suctioning, or foreign body in trachea

    laryngospasm, bronchospasm, bucking, cardiac arrhythmia, hypotension
  72. All autonomic reflexes during anesthesia and surgery the efferent nerve that is stimulated is what
    vagus nerve
  73. adrenergic or sympathominmetic drugs act like
    nor epi and epi b/c they do not rely on reuptake

    *these drugs have an effect which is much more prolonged than that of either epi or nor epi
  74. phenylephrine stimulates what receptors
    alpha
  75. albuterol stimulates what receptors
    beta 2 receptors
  76. which drugs act indirectly by increasing the release of norepi from its storage terminals
    ephedrine, tyramine, amphetamine
  77. Which drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors


    What do they do
    neostigmine, pyridostimine, and ambenontium

    potentiates the effect of acetylcholine
  78. Phenylephrine, adrenergic, or non adrenergic?

    Stimulates what receptors
    adrenergic

    alpha receptors
  79. Isoproterenol adrenergic, or non ?

    stimulates what receptors
    adrenergic

    beta1 and beta 2
  80. albuterol adrenergic or non

    stimulates what receptors
    adrenergic

    beta 2 only
  81. antiadrenergic drugs block the effects of what
    epi and nor epi
  82. resperine adrenergic or non

    what does it do
    non

    blocks the synthesis and storage of epi and NE
  83. guanethidine adrenergic or non

    blocks what
    non

    blocks the release of epi and ne from nerve terminal
  84. alpha blockers phentaolamine and phenoxybezamine

    beta blockers propranolol, and metoprolol are all what type of drugs
    anti adrenergic

    block effects of epi and ne
  85. parasympathomimetic drugs

    nicotine does what

    pilocarpine and metacholine do what
    nicotine- activates nictotinic receptors

    pilocarpine and metacholine active muscarinic receptors, can cause perfuse sweating
  86. anti muscarinic drugs are what
    atropine and scopalamine

    block the effect of ACH on effector cells

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