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What are the three factors that oxygenation depends on?
- 1. Ventilation: ability to breathe air in and out of the lungs
- 2. Diffusion: gas exchange at alveolar level
- 3. Perfusion: carry nutrition to tissues and remove waste
What is one way to remember how the blood flows through the heart valves?
- Tissue paper my assets
What is cardiac output?
Volume of blood being pumped out of the heart in 1 min. Ave 5L/min
How do you calculate cardiac output?
SV x HR = CO
60-80 x 60-100 = 4-7L/min
What is the widowmaker?
Left Coronary Artery/Left Main artery
*in older adults, collateral blood vessels allow blockage without death
What is the stroke volume?
Volume of blood within the heart during pumping
What are the three things that affect cardiac output?
Explain Preload and Afterload
What would you use to decrease preload?
Diruretics (preload backs into the venous system)
What would you use to decrease afterload?
Vasodialators- backs into the arterial system
What would you use to increase contractility?
Something with a positive isotropic effect like Digoxin
What is the cardiac conduction system and what are the normal rhythms?
SA-->VA-->Bundle of His--?Perkinje fibers
- SA: 60-100 bpm
- VA:40-60 bpm
- PF: 20-40 bpm
Describe the ECG complex (PQRST)
- P- Atrium contracts (Systole)
- QRS- Ventricular Systole
- T- ventricular diastole (relaxation)
What is another name for the upper airway?
Dead space: no gas exchange
What is the intra pleural pressure at sea level?
What is the difference in processes of inhalation and exhalation?
Inhalation: Active process, triggered by chemical receptors in aorta
Exhalation: Passive process, dependent on the lungs ability to recoil
What are the two types of cells in the lungs and what are their functions?
- Type 1 (Squamous Alveolar): cells for gas exchange
- Type 2 (Great Alveolar): cells to produce surfectant
surfectant reduces surface tension and prevents alveoli from collapsing
What is ARDS?
Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome-gas exchange does not occur due to a lack of surfectant production and hypoxia occurs
Describe the difference between left sided and right sided heart failure?
Left sided: blood pools in the lungs and leads to hypoxia
Right sided: blood pools in the veins and leads to pulmonary disease
What lab values are important for O2 assessment?
- Cardiac Enzymes: CK, LDH
- Cardiac Troponins
- Serum Electrolytes
What are some cardiac tests that will be done for O2 assessment?
- Stress Tests
- EKG- will show past or present cardiac damage
- Holter Monitor
- Electrophysiology tests
- Cardiac Catheterization
What kind of catheter is used for oral suctioning?
What is the difference between a hematothorax and a pneumothorax?
Hematothorax is when blood causes the lung to collapse
- Pneumothorax is when there air that causes the lung to collapse
- -open to the outside
- -closed and created by inside pressure
- collapse can also be caused by pleural effusion, which is any other liquid
Why is a tension pneumothorax an emergency?
As the tension builds, it moves everything in the chest cavity
A key sign is a deviated trachea away from the effected side
It is always better to have an open pneumothorax than a closed one
What is the MOST IMPORTANT thing to educate a client about when it comes to at home oxygen?
It is a fire hazard!!