Test 2 - Jesus thru China

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Test 2 - Jesus thru China
2013-11-06 20:52:20

Test 2 Jesus through China
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    • Rome enters Judaea
    • *General Pomey (leads the takeover)
    • *Defiles the Temple, all the way to the
    • “Holy of Holies”
    • *Overthrows the last of the Maccabees
    • *Judea was on the fringes of Rome
    • =distant from authority
    • =very unstable rule
    • *Disunity among Jews on Roman rule
    • *Constant threat and fear of uprising
  2. Jesus
    • born and died a jew
    • (Jesus was) Raised in Galilee
    • =center of zealots
    • -Quasi-Zealot
    • =preached moral transformation rather
    • than political change
    • -Sermon on the Mount
    • =Basis for the Western value system
    • =Total change from previous morality
    • Jesus and his disciples would've been
    • very young. Galilee hated
    • Rome the most. Jesus practiced Moral zealotry
  3. Zealotry
    • Rebelled at the
    • slightest threat to Jewish faith
    • -Revolt against
    • Archelaus
    • =Herod's son
    • =200 Jews crucified
    • =(this was all) during Jesus's childhood
    • -Great Zealot
    • revolt
    • =lasted 4 years
    • =Rome destroyed Jerusalem and the Jewish Temple (now all that is left is the wailing
    • wall)
  4. Syncretism
    • -Roman policy of mixing conquered faiths with emperor worship
    • -Belief that while gods had different names, they were all the same god
    • -Fashionable worldview popular at Christ's death
    • -Jews and Christians stood out as fanatical
    • Only when they
    • started causing trouble did Rome get suspicious and mad at them, when
    • they stared saying, “My way is THE only way” and refused to
    • conform to this belief
  5. Martyrdom
    • Not something that one chose
    • =chosen by God
    • (they believed)
    • (Christians believed) Christ suffered along with the martyr
    • =allowed them to
    • stand firm
    • =firmness was a
    • gift from God
    • Spontaneous martyrdom wasn't condoned
    • (Not a church for
    • the lighthearted)
  6. Nero
    • pleasure seeker
    • poet and artist
    • alienated Rome
    • The Great Fire
    • =likely not Nero – but he'll get the blame
    • =destroyed most of Rome
    • =Christian and Jewish quarters were spared
    • (Nero manages to shift the blame to them)
    • -Christians as social amusement
    • =satisfy sadistic impulse
    • -Public spectacle
    • =beasts
    • =crucifixions
    • =burned at the
    • stake
    • -This was limited mostly to Rome
    • =Peter and Paul (probably died because of this era)
    • Nero was deposed (overthrown)
    • Rome tried to erase him from its history. This ended the persecution
  7. Constantine
    • One of four tetrarchs (leaders of divided Rome)
    • Determined to unify all of Rome
    • Grand vision for the restoration of Roman glory
    • Begins unification of the empire
    • Edict of Milan - Christians must be tolerated
    • Christianity as glue for the empire
    • Christian God = Unconquered Sun
    • Continues to worship pagan gods
    • Christianity and Paganism on equal basis
    • Baptized Christian at death
  8. Imperial Church
    • End of persecution and martyrdom
    • Tax exemption for Church properties and for bishops
    • Christianity an paganism on equal basis
    • Pagan practices
    • -Incense
    • -“Priest”
    • -Communion table = Altar
    • -Kneeling at prayer
    • Pomp and ceremony
    • -Processions
    • -Wealthy, influential leaders 
    • -Processions and choirs
  9. Byzantium
    • Old Eastern Rome
    • -Continuation of Roman rule and society
    • -Rome defunct (no longer existed) in the West
    • Constantine founded Constantinople
    • Blend of Urban and Rural
    • -Flourishing cities
    • -Single-family farms
    • Contested location
    • -“The Bulwark of Christianity” (Maintains a shield for Christianity when Islam was conquering everywhere)
  10. Justinian
    • Conqueror and builder
    • Sought to restore the glory of Rome
    • Reclaimed Italy, North Africa, Spain
    • Massive building projects
    • -Hagia Sophia the church
    • -St. Mark’s in Venice
    • -Bankruptcy
    • Justinian Code: unified code of law that applied to the rich and poor
  11. Bedouin
    • Arabian peninsula
    • -Center of travel and trade
    • -Mix of urban and transient
    • Bedouin people
    • -Nomadic
    • -Merchants and traders
    • -Clan-based
    • -Frequent feuds
    • Pre-Muslim religion
    • -Many lesser gods worshiped by individual clans
    • -One greater god
  12. Islam
    • Muhammad the prophet
    • -Bedouin
    • merchant
    • -Around 40 years old
    • The Angel Gabriel 
    • -Divine revelations
    • -Koran,Hadith
    • Islam: Submission - very simple
    • Appeal to men and women in an unstable society
  13. Hijra
    • "the fleeing"
    • New spreading of religion angers wealthier clans
    • persecusion threatened in Mecca
    • Fled to Medina
    • -gathers support there
    • Returned to Mecca victoriously
  14. Caliph
    • means successor
    • Muhammad died without a male heir
    • First Caliphs were Muhammad's wives
    • 3rd Caliph: Ali - first to be of Muhammad's bloodline
    • Everyone wanted this position, and Ali was assasinated
  15. Shi'ite
    • Leaders must be descended from the House of Ali -still loyal even now
    • stricter adherence to Koran
    • Very conservative
  16. Sunni
    • Leader can be any qualified Muslim
    • More liberal in society and politics
  17. Battle of Tours
    • Height of Muslim expansion
    • They take over north africa, spain
    • -Tours - central France
    • Charles Martel raises an army
    • End of Western Muslim in Western Europe, saving Christianity in that are
    • Major turning point in world history
  18. Papacy
    • Peter: First Bishop of Rome
    • Pope = Father
    • Declining order in Western Roman Empire
    • -Roman authority in Constantinople
    • De facto rulers of the City of Rome
    • Early rise of papal power corresponds to rise in disorder
    • Papal desire to assert and centralize power in Europe
  19. Pope Urban II
    • Desire for greater papal authority
    • -establishes Roman Curia (central government like other Kings in Europe)
    • Crusade – bid for more power
    • call of crusade draws attention to Rome and to the papacy
    • -warring armies respond to the Pope's will
  20. First Crusade
    • Very little preparation (took up weapons and headed out)
    • -food and water deprived
    • -outweighed by high religious zeal
    • Taking of Jerusalem
    • -Muslims and Jews against predominantly Franks
    • Scene of destruction
    • -Mass murders, executions, pillaging, rape, cannibalism
  21. Saladin
    • Sultan of Egypt and Syria
    • Sunni Muslim
    • Reputation for chivalry (knights will copy him later on)
    • opposite of christian behavior - conquered foes treated with honor
    • Strong Tactician
    • -understood military tactics, supply lines, desert combat
    • Rallied Muslim support against Christian invaders
    • Battled to a truce against Baldwin IV
  22. Battle of Hattin
    • (king of Jerusalem) Guy vs Saladin
    • -military ineptitude vs genius
    • -no water in a desert battle
    • -mostly Christians killed in battle
    • -Christian loss left Jerusalem open for attack
    • Guy and Raynald captured
    • Battle left Jerusalem open to capture
    • -civilians allowed to escape safely
    • -soldiers ransomed or sold into slavery
    • -Jews invited to resettle the city
  23. Confucianism
    • Started by Confucius - teacher, philosopher
    • Confucianism: ethical behavior in society and government
    • -quest for social harmony
    • -emphasis on education
    • -emphasis on family and deference
  24. Mandate of Heaven
    • Heaven's permission to rule the world
    • China - center of the world
    • Emperor - center of China
    • Chinese Emperor is Heaven's representative on Earth
    • -predicted solar eclipses, Yellow River floods, natural disasters
    • It is possible to lose the mandate and that is a change in dynasty occurs
  25. Buddhism
    • Basic tenets
    • -life is suffering
    • -suffering is based on desire
    • -follow the 8 fold path to achieve Nirvana
    • Nirvana
    • -enlightenment and end of suffering
    • -escape the cycle of death and rebirth
    • Avoid extreme denial
    • avoid total self gratification
  26. Tan Dynasty
    • Begun by Sui general who overthrew the Sui emperor
    • High point in Chinese history
    • -trade with the outside world
    • -emphasized Buddhism and Confucianism
    • -Dynasty of learning and culture
    • Tang Code
    • -code of laws for all local magistrates to follow
    • -gradation between crimes - murder vs manslaughter
  27. Equal field system
    • Tax system based upon wealth and economic standing
    • Attempt to eliminate extreme poverty
    • Based upon an empire-wide census every 3 years
    • each individual was entitled to certain amount of land
    • Households divided into 9 ranks based upon wealth
    • tax based upon level of rank
  28. Emperor Wu
    • First Female emperor
    • started off as a concubine
    • declared herself emperor
    • history has a bad idea of her
    • buddhism
  29. Song
    • Overthrown of a boy ruler in one of the 5 Dynasty regions
    • Unified China
    • Emphasis on civilian rule
    • -learned from the Tang dynasty
    • -confucian exams
    • Government with six ministires
    • northern invaders forced them to flee south
  30. Southern Song
    • warmer climate brings crop and financial boom
    • high rate of literacy and education
    • emphasis on confucian exams
    • landscape paintings on silk