A&P Cardiovascular System

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Author:
Hfowler51
ID:
245324
Filename:
A&P Cardiovascular System
Updated:
2013-11-18 17:04:24
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Vet Tech
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Blood and Cardiovascular System
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  1. The Flow of Blood
    • 1. Left ventricle
    • 2. Aortic valve
    • 3. Aorta
    • 4. Arteries
    • 5. Arterioles
    • 6. Capillaries
    • 7. Venules
    • 8. Veins
    • 9. Vena Cavas
    • 10. Right Auricle
    • 11. Right Atrium
    • 12. Tricuspid Valve
    • 13. Right Ventricle
    • 14. Pulmonary Valve
    • 15. Pulmonary Artery
    • 16. Lungs
    • 17. Pulmonary Vein
    • 18. Left Auricle
    • 19. Left Atrium
    • 20. Mitral Valve
    • 21. Left Ventricle
  2. The heart is situated within the pericardial cavity located in the _______ of the thorax. The cavity is enclosed by a membranous sac, the ______, which is composed of layers of tissue.
    mediastinum; pericardium
  3. The outer layer, or ____________, is comprised of tough, dense, connective tissue that serves to protect the heart and attach it within the thoracic cavity.
    parietal pericardium
  4. The inner membrane, or __________, forms a double layer and secrets a lubricating pericardial fluid into the space between the membrane and the heart (the pericardial cavity)
    serous pericardium
  5. The outer layer or _____ is really the visceral layer of the serous pericardium
    epicardium
  6. The middle layer, or ______, consists of the cardiac muscle of the heart.
    myocardium
  7. The inner layer, _______ is a delicate membrane formed from endothelial cells that are continuous with those of the blood vessels entering and leaving the heart.
    endocardium
  8. List the layers of the heart from inside out.
    • 1. Endocardium
    • 2. Myocardium
    • 3. Epicardium or visceral layer of serous pericardium or visceral pericardium
    • 4. Pericardial Space (potential space)
    • 5. Serous Pericardium Or Parietal layer of serous pericardium or Parietal pericardium
  9. The heart is considered a _____.
    Pump
  10. The heart is divided into four chamber with the right side being separated from the left side by a wall of cardiac muscle known as the ____.
    septum
  11. The upper chambers are the right and left ____. These pump blood into the right and left ventricles through the _____ and ____ valves
    Atria; tricuspid, mitral
  12. The tricuspid and mitral valves are also known as the right and left _________ valves.
    atrioventricular valves
  13. The _____, with its thickened muscular wall, contracts and propels blood into the ____, the major artery that supplies the body with blood.
    Ventricle; Aorta
  14. The thinner walled ___ ventricle pumps blood to the lungs. It is thinner than that of the other ventricle, as the force of contraction required to pump the blood the relatively _____ distance to the lungs, is less than that needed to get all around the body.
    right; shorter
  15. In the lungs, the exchange of oxygen and CO2 occurs and oxygenated blood returns to the ___ atrium of the heart before being pumped around the body.
    left atrium
  16. It can be seen that the circulation of blood in mammals can be described a a ________- blood passes twice through the heart in one circuit around the body.
    double circulation
  17. What are the two types of circulation?
    • 1. Pulmonary Circulation (to the lungs)
    • 2. System Circulation (to the body)
  18. Deoxygenated blood is pumped from the right side of the heart to the lungs in the pulmonary arteries. It is oxygenated at the lungs before being returned to the heart in the pulmonary veins. What kind of Circulation?
    Pulmonary Circulation
  19. As a rule, blood vessels known as arteries carry blood ____ from the heart, whereas blood vessels known as veins carry blood ___ the heart.
    Away; Towards
  20. Many use another rule that veins always carry deoxygenated blood whereas arteries carry oxygenated blood. What are the two exceptions?
    • 1. Deoxygenated blood moves through the pulmonary artery to the lungs and then back to the heart thourhg pulmonary vein
    • 2. In the blood supply to the fetus, the umbilical artery carries deoxygenated blood away from the fetus whereas the umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood to the fetus
  21. ________ responsible for the passage of blood from the left side of the heart to the body tissues, via arteries and capillaries, where it becomes deoxygenated before returning to the right side of the heart in veins.
    Systemic circulation
  22. the circulation of blood around the mammalian body occurs in a figure 8 pattern, passing twice through the heart of each circuit round the body.
    systemic circulation
  23. The contact between the cells via the _______ allows the cells to contract simultaneously, and the heart appears to act like one large muscle cell.
    intercalated discs
  24. _____ muscle is unique in that it is the only muscle that does not fatigue following repeated contractions.
    Cardiac muscle
  25. Cardiac muscle is also capable of rhythmic contraction without any nerve supply, a property known a ______.
    automaticity
  26. Name two congenital defects
    • 1. Pulmonic stenosis
    • 2. aortic stenosis
    • both are due to a deformity of either the pulmonary or aortic semilunar valve of heart, leading to a narrowing in the valvular region
  27. What causes valve incompetence or valvular insufficiency?
    This is a type of Acquired valvular disease which  arise when the cusps of the valves thicken and lose elasticity. this particular disease occurs when the valve leaks due to the cusps thickening and losing elasticity.
  28. What is the most common valve disease?
    mitral valve disease
  29. usually first evident as a general slowing down of the animal during exercise that may be accompanied by the breathlessness
    Mitral valve disease
  30. Blood accumulates in the left atrium and may flow back into the lungs in severe cases, causing pulmonary congestion. This may lead to  __________ and dyspnea, even in an animal at rest.
    pulmonary edema
  31. 6 steps of the Renin Angiotensin system
    • 1. Blood pressure drops and is detected by the juxtaglomerular cell in the kidneys.
    • 2. Renin is released into the blood and splits off Angiotensin I from protein globulins
    • 3. Angiotensin I is converted into Angiotensin II by the Angiotensin Conversion Enzyme (ACE)
    • 4. Angiotensin II goes to the adrenal glomerulosa to cause the release of Aldosterone
    • 5. Aldosterone goes to the kidney to cause the absorption of sodium
    • 6. As Na is absorbed, water comes with it increasing the volume of the blood and raising the blood pressure
  32. Treatment of Mitral valve deficiency?
    Enacard
  33. How does Enacard work?
    it is an ACE inhibitor- it blocks the conversion of Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II.
  34. __________ causes right side heart failure ( tricuspid disease)
    Dirofilaria immitis
  35. a disease in which the muscular wall of the heart become thin and lose their ability to contract effectively. Etiology unknown. Most common in lg breeds
    Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM)
  36. (heart attack in humans) does not occur frequently in animals; acute myocardial ischemia is often secondary to other cardiac diseases like aortic stenosis, endocarditis, cardiomyopathy, or neoplasia
    Myocardial Infarction
  37. a bacterial infection of the endocardium, usually involving a valve. In dogs, the most commonly affected valve is the mitral, followed by the aortic pulmonic and tricuspid.
    Endocarditis
  38. most common heart disease of cats
    hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
  39. a disease of the myocardium, in which the left ventricular walls (myocardium) become thickened (hypertrophied) while the left ventricular chamber decreases in size. Clots will form and break loose lodging in the iliac arteries (saddle thrombus) with hind limb paresis. Other thrombi can lead to renal failure, cerebral accidents etc.
    Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

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