A&P Cardiovascular System
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The Flow of Blood
- 1. Left ventricle
- 2. Aortic valve
- 3. Aorta
- 4. Arteries
- 5. Arterioles
- 6. Capillaries
- 7. Venules
- 8. Veins
- 9. Vena Cavas
- 10. Right Auricle
- 11. Right Atrium
- 12. Tricuspid Valve
- 13. Right Ventricle
- 14. Pulmonary Valve
- 15. Pulmonary Artery
- 16. Lungs
- 17. Pulmonary Vein
- 18. Left Auricle
- 19. Left Atrium
- 20. Mitral Valve
- 21. Left Ventricle
The heart is situated within the pericardial cavity located in the _______ of the thorax. The cavity is enclosed by a membranous sac, the ______, which is composed of layers of tissue.
The outer layer, or ____________, is comprised of tough, dense, connective tissue that serves to protect the heart and attach it within the thoracic cavity.
The inner membrane, or __________, forms a double layer and secrets a lubricating pericardial fluid into the space between the membrane and the heart (the pericardial cavity)
The outer layer or _____ is really the visceral layer of the serous pericardium
The middle layer, or ______, consists of the cardiac muscle of the heart.
The inner layer, _______ is a delicate membrane formed from endothelial cells that are continuous with those of the blood vessels entering and leaving the heart.
List the layers of the heart from inside out.
- 1. Endocardium
- 2. Myocardium
- 3. Epicardium or visceral layer of serous pericardium or visceral pericardium
- 4. Pericardial Space (potential space)
- 5. Serous Pericardium Or Parietal layer of serous pericardium or Parietal pericardium
The heart is considered a _____.
The heart is divided into four chamber with the right side being separated from the left side by a wall of cardiac muscle known as the ____.
The upper chambers are the right and left ____. These pump blood into the right and left ventricles through the _____ and ____ valves
Atria; tricuspid, mitral
The tricuspid and mitral valves are also known as the right and left _________ valves.
The _____, with its thickened muscular wall, contracts and propels blood into the ____, the major artery that supplies the body with blood.
The thinner walled ___ ventricle pumps blood to the lungs. It is thinner than that of the other ventricle, as the force of contraction required to pump the blood the relatively _____ distance to the lungs, is less than that needed to get all around the body.
In the lungs, the exchange of oxygen and CO2 occurs and oxygenated blood returns to the ___ atrium of the heart before being pumped around the body.
It can be seen that the circulation of blood in mammals can be described a a ________- blood passes twice through the heart in one circuit around the body.
What are the two types of circulation?
- 1. Pulmonary Circulation (to the lungs)
- 2. System Circulation (to the body)
Deoxygenated blood is pumped from the right side of the heart to the lungs in the pulmonary arteries. It is oxygenated at the lungs before being returned to the heart in the pulmonary veins. What kind of Circulation?
As a rule, blood vessels known as arteries carry blood ____ from the heart, whereas blood vessels known as veins carry blood ___ the heart.
Many use another rule that veins always carry deoxygenated blood whereas arteries carry oxygenated blood. What are the two exceptions?
- 1. Deoxygenated blood moves through the pulmonary artery to the lungs and then back to the heart thourhg pulmonary vein
- 2. In the blood supply to the fetus, the umbilical artery carries deoxygenated blood away from the fetus whereas the umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood to the fetus
________ responsible for the passage of blood from the left side of the heart to the body tissues, via arteries and capillaries, where it becomes deoxygenated before returning to the right side of the heart in veins.
the circulation of blood around the mammalian body occurs in a figure 8 pattern, passing twice through the heart of each circuit round the body.
The contact between the cells via the _______ allows the cells to contract simultaneously, and the heart appears to act like one large muscle cell.
_____ muscle is unique in that it is the only muscle that does not fatigue following repeated contractions.
Cardiac muscle is also capable of rhythmic contraction without any nerve supply, a property known a ______.
Name two congenital defects
- 1. Pulmonic stenosis
- 2. aortic stenosis
- both are due to a deformity of either the pulmonary or aortic semilunar valve of heart, leading to a narrowing in the valvular region
What causes valve incompetence or valvular insufficiency?
This is a type of Acquired valvular disease which arise when the cusps of the valves thicken and lose elasticity. this particular disease occurs when the valve leaks due to the cusps thickening and losing elasticity.
What is the most common valve disease?
mitral valve disease
usually first evident as a general slowing down of the animal during exercise that may be accompanied by the breathlessness
Mitral valve disease
Blood accumulates in the left atrium and may flow back into the lungs in severe cases, causing pulmonary congestion. This may lead to __________ and dyspnea, even in an animal at rest.
6 steps of the Renin Angiotensin system
- 1. Blood pressure drops and is detected by the juxtaglomerular cell in the kidneys.
- 2. Renin is released into the blood and splits off Angiotensin I from protein globulins
- 3. Angiotensin I is converted into Angiotensin II by the Angiotensin Conversion Enzyme (ACE)
- 4. Angiotensin II goes to the adrenal glomerulosa to cause the release of Aldosterone
- 5. Aldosterone goes to the kidney to cause the absorption of sodium
- 6. As Na is absorbed, water comes with it increasing the volume of the blood and raising the blood pressure
Treatment of Mitral valve deficiency?
How does Enacard work?
it is an ACE inhibitor- it blocks the conversion of Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II.
__________ causes right side heart failure ( tricuspid disease)
a disease in which the muscular wall of the heart become thin and lose their ability to contract effectively. Etiology unknown. Most common in lg breeds
Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM)
(heart attack in humans) does not occur frequently in animals; acute myocardial ischemia is often secondary to other cardiac diseases like aortic stenosis, endocarditis, cardiomyopathy, or neoplasia
a bacterial infection of the endocardium, usually involving a valve. In dogs, the most commonly affected valve is the mitral, followed by the aortic pulmonic and tricuspid.
most common heart disease of cats
a disease of the myocardium, in which the left ventricular walls (myocardium) become thickened (hypertrophied) while the left ventricular chamber decreases in size. Clots will form and break loose lodging in the iliac arteries (saddle thrombus) with hind limb paresis. Other thrombi can lead to renal failure, cerebral accidents etc.
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