Comms Test 2

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  1. Colonial Press
    • late 1700s
    • funded by hobbies/sideline; weren't trying to make money
    • wealthy and educated bought them
    • started in Boston and Philadelphia
    • 1st newspaper was Public Occurrences both Foreign and Domestic
    • the last page was left blank so people could write things on it
    • newspapers weren't fair or balanced
  2. Partisan Press
    • 1800s
    • funded by Partisans (political parties)
    • newspapers were one side; not balanced; biased; objective
    • happened through patronage
  3. Penny Press
    • 1833
    • sales and subscribers supported these newspapers
    • middle and merchant class; they can now afford these newspapers
    • huge content change due to new class interest
    • became more objective about what they were writing about; people wanted to check facts
    • first was Ben Day, who founded "New York Sun"
  4. Yellow Journalism
    • 1890s
    • mostly funded by advertisers
    • supported by citizens
    • used fake information if they didn't have real news
    • used flashy headlines to catch people's attention
    • gatekeeping comes in
    • Pulitzer started the World magazine; wasn't reaching lower class
    • William Hurst then came along and reached out to the lower class
  5. aggregator
    pulls from a lot of informational sources
  6. curation
    the user/audience curate what to bring in
  7. major music industry issues
    • 1. internet copyright and downloads 
    • -if it's online, is it copyrighted?
    • 2. royalties- more about who should get paid
    • 3. radio royalties- should radio have to pay one time for the song and be able to play it over and over again...or should they pay every single time
    • 4. pirating- illegally downloading music and selling it
  8. Wireless Ship Act
    • 1910
    • showed that the government cared about being involved in regulating the airwaves
    • first time they really showed the desire to be involved
    • ships have to have radios on them to radio in
  9. Radio Act of 1912
    • right after the Titanic
    • made more specific rules for radio protocol
    • you had to have 2 radio operators per shift
    • started call letters; east of Mississippi is W; west of Mississippi is K; and NNA
  10. Radio Act of 1927
    • established Federal Radio Commission
    • public owns the airwavesproblems of interference where people tried to be on same airwave
    • people broadcasting without licenses
  11. Communications Act of 1934
    • got rid of the FRC and replaced it with the FCC (controlled and licensed all forms of communication)
    • PICN (public interest convenience and necessity); localism
    • what's on the radio needs to pertain to where you are
    • people in UT don't want to hear about what small crimes are going on in NYC
  12. Telecommunications Act of 1996
    • it assigned a certain wattage depending on where you lived
    • internet wasn't under the FCC
  13. Media (change caused by television)
    • switched from radio to television
    • programming changes
    • a form of media has never died
    • newspapers were dying in the afternoon; people watched TV
  14. advertising (change caused by TV)
    • sponsorships
    • had to think of time and space and how much they would charge people for advertising (commercials) vs. how much they charged newspapers
    • television dramatically changed advertising industry      
    • -shows used to be sponsored by only one advertiser     
    • -people could see it, so they wanted it     
    • -many commercials started coming about  
    • -we've realized we can make commercials shorter and have more advertisers
  15. social (change caused by TV)
    • architecture
    • family rooms were changed to accommodate a television
  16. entertainment industry (change caused by TV)
    • movies were playing at the box office
    • Netflix, Hulu, etc.
  17. cultural (change caused by TV)
    • Civil Rights Movement
    • we're able to actually watch the atrocities happening to other people           
    • -it was OK to read it in a newspaper, but was painful to actually watch it
  18. politics (change caused by TV)
    • were made into a celebrity institution 
    • changed politics
    • almost made it a drama
    • Richard Nixon and JFK
    • -Nixon had better arguments, but JFK was more confident 
    • -People who watched it on T.V. thought JFK won, but people on radio thought Nixon won
  19. Silent Era
    • late 1800's, late 1920's
    • 1903 The Great Train Robbery provides narrative in the movie that explained what was going on in the movie; nothing like it before then
    • Talking movies
    • -emerged with the Jazz Singer
    • -people didn't like it at first
    • Payne Fund Studies
    • -kids going to movies more are doing worse in school
    • Hayes Code Reformation (1930)
    • -basically no sex, kissing, can't make crimes look good, 
    • -turned into the rating system
    • -started to look at the effect of media on kids towards the end of this era
    • Early 1920s people become concerned with declining morals (the same as with radio, TV, etc.)
    • -Hollywood star got divorced and got married within a week...insinuating that they had a relationship before the divorce
    • -Citizen groups started calling for the government to censor the movies because they were concerned with the declining sense they created the Motion Picture Production Association
  20. Studio Giants
    • late 1920s-WWII
    • really short era because of the Great Depression
    • propaganda
    • -repetition
    • -simplicity
    • -imagery
    • -sentiment
  21. Golden Age
    • 1945-mid 50s
    • Suspense
    • Hitchcock mania
    • short era because it was interrupted by TV
    • Alfred Hitchcock saw how he could use black and white and various shades of grey to create things that were intense
    • color was dominated by Technicolor
  22. Widescreen and Color Era
    • mid 50s-late 70s
    • drive-in theaters
    • Technicolor became more popular
    • many movie companies (MGM, Columbia Pictures, Paramount) suffered because of TV
    • rating systems replaced Hayes code
  23. Resurgence/Blockbuster Era
    • late 1970s/early 1980s-2000s
    • Jaws, Indiana Jones
    • realizing that you can sell a character more than you can sell a movie
    • ex. Harry Potter, Luke Skywalker...
    • Universal Pictures    
    • -had Alfred Hitchcock on contract    
    • -did Spaghetti Westerns         
    • --low budget films         
    • --made pretty good profit    
    • -experimented with young movie makers
    • --someone wanted to make a movie about their life cruising around their hometown
    • --his name was George Lucas; made American Graffiti         
    • --Steven Spielberg created Jaws
  24. Era of Change and Innovation
    • 2000-present
    • DVD's, special effects
    • ex. Avatar
  25. magazines
    are a form of demassification because there are so many types
  26. how has marketing of movies changed in the past 10 years?
    • watch many trailers online through youtube, social media, etc.
    • new competition    
    • -Hulu, Netflix, etc.    
    • certain movies are made specifically for this
    • CGI    
    • -computer generated graphics    
    • -Avatar; has made 2.7 billion dollars
    • we have so many ways of distributing movies    
    • has movie industry constantly changing
  27. gatekeeping
    • similar to agenda setting theory
    • 1. every newsroom has a subculture of complex values and judgments
    • 2. there is a difference between the medium and the taste of the audience making assumptions about it
    • 3. you have lots of stories and information you have to sort through
    • 4. you have limited space so you have to prioritize things
    • 5. you make decisions/judgments about what to cover
  28. hypodermic needle/magic bullet theory
    • the media sent a message out, and the public responds
    • Three Phases:
    • 1. media injects its messages straight into the audience
    • 2. the audience is passive and immediately affected by these messages      
    • -passive: much more vulnerable to message; listen more
    • 3. you can't escape the media's influence    
    • -much more susceptible to media's message
    • -refers a lot to 1920's,30's,40's
  29. war of the worlds
    • people responded in an alarming way
    • Why did people respond this way?
    • -this was their most accredited news source
    • -there was a live voice
    • -this was trusted news; people trusted it
  30. TV as an illustration of demassification
    • Allowing to rewind and fast-forward
    • time-shifting
  31. Power Rangers Theory (part of social learning/modeling theory)
    • came out in 1995
    • took a control group    
    • one group of kids in classroom doing reading/coloring    
    • one group of kids watching Power Rangers
    • then they sent them out to the playground
    • kids who watched Power Rangers acted like Power Rangers on the playground
    • found many acts of aggression during Power Rangers episode
    • those who had watched the episode committed 7 times as many acts of aggression after viewing
  32. Bobo Doll Theory (part of social learning/modeling theory)
    • Three parts:
    • live model
    • verbal instruction
    • symbolic
    • the children were put in a room with a lot of toys and a large inflatable doll    
    • when they watched the adult act violent, they acted violent    
    • when they watched the adult be more calm, they weren't violent
    • showed that when you see someone doing violent actions, it doesn't purge you of doing them, it makes you want to be violent-this was an immediate effect saying stimuli is being sent out, and there's an immediate emotional response
    • similar to magic bullet theory
Card Set:
Comms Test 2
2013-11-08 00:03:31

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