Domain 1: Planning Organizing and Managing Reading Instruction

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Domain 1: Planning Organizing and Managing Reading Instruction
2014-01-20 17:52:14

(1) Principles of Standards-Based Reading Instruction:
Show Answers:

  1. A) ELA & CA state adopted Materials:

    Teachers should plan instructions with what goal?
    Every student in the classroom will meet the content standards adopted by the CA state Board of Education.
  2. A) ELA & CA state adopted Materials:

    What do the ELA content standards for CA public schools k-12 state about every child?
    • The standards state what every child should know and be able to do at each grade level. 
    • E.g. 1st graders are suppose to be able to distinguish long and short-vowel sounds in orally stated, single-syllable words (e.g., bit/bite)
  3. A) ELA & CA state adopted Materials:

    What does Star stand for?
    What does CST stand for?
    Star- Standardized Testing and Reporting program

    CST- California Standards test (measures student achievement of the standards)
  4. A) ELA & CA state adopted Materials:

    All instructional decisions, materials used, how to group students, activities, and pace of teaching should enable what?
    It should enable every student to achieve each of the standards for your grade level.
  5. B) A Balanced, Comprehensive Reading Program as Described by the CA Reading/Language Arts Framework of 2007

    Aside from the ELA content standards what is the other state approved document that is important to you?
    The CA Reading/Language Arts Framework for CA Public Schools. K-12 of 2007
  6. B) A Balanced, Comprehensive Reading Program as Described by the CA Reading/Language Arts Framework of 2007

    What does the CA Reading/Language Arts Framework for Public Schools provide? 3 things it provides
    1) It provides a blueprint for organizing instruction so that every child meets or exceeds the language arts content standards.
  7. B) A Balanced, Comprehensive Reading Program as Described by the CA Reading/Language Arts Framework of 2007

    What does the CA Reading/Language Arts Framework for Public Schools provide?
    3 things it provides
    2)It provides guidelines on what should be taught at each grade level and how to assess and teach that content.
  8. B) A Balanced, Comprehensive Reading Program as Described by the CA Reading/Language Arts Framework of 2007

    What does the CA Reading/Language Arts Framework for Public Schools provide?
    3 things it provides
    3) It provides guidelines for the selection of instructional materials.
  9. B) A Balanced, Comprehensive Reading Program as Described by the CA Reading/Language Arts Framework of 2007

    The Framework calls for what kind of instructional program?
    An instructional program in reading and language arts that is (1) balanced and (2) comprehensive.
  10. (1) Balanced instructional program:

    What characterizes a balanced instructional program?
    It is characterized by the strategic and appropriate selections of what skills should be taught, given a child not children's level of reading development.
  11. (1) Balanced instructional program:

    What does it mean when a balanced instructional program is based on a child not children's level of reading development?
    • This means that more time is devoted to some categories of skills, and less time to others. 
    • E.g., in 1st grade more attention will be given to word recognition skills, whereas in 6th grade more attention would be paid to complex comprehension skills.
  12. (2) Comprehensive instructional program:

    An instructional program is comprehensive when?
    The teacher works on helping students achieve all the grade-level standards.
  13. (2) Comprehensive instructional program:

    At each grade level there are ELA standards in what categories?
    • a) word analysis, fluency, and systematic vocabulary development
    • b) reading comprehension
    • c) literary response and analysis
    • d) writing strategies and writing applications
    • e) written and oral English language conventions
    • f) listening and speaking strategies
    • g) speaking applications
  14. (2) Comprehensive instructional program:

    What is  the key idea about having all the grade level standards in ELA?
    Teachers should not get bogged down on any one component of the reading/language arts program. (don't get stuck on any one part because there are many other to cover)
  15. (2) Comprehensive instructional program:

    What does it mean that the teacher should not get bogged down on any one component of reading/language arts program?
    The children in your classroom should receive direct, explicit instruction in reading skills and strategies; and they should have opportunities to use those skills and strategies to read a variety of texts and write in several formats.
  16. (2) Comprehensive instructional program:

    What is a skill?
    Something that a reader does automatically (or, with automaticity).
  17. (2) Comprehensive instructional program:

    Give example of reading skills?
    The ability to decode. E.g., knowing that the c in cake is "hard," and makes the /k/ sound, whereas the c in city is "soft," and make the /s/ sound.
  18. (2) Comprehensive instructional program:

    What is a strategy in reading?
    It is something a reader consciously chooses to implement. E.g., a reader may want to get an overview of a chapter in a social studies textbook, so she previews the chapter by reading the first paragraph, all the subtitles, and the chapter summary.
  19. (2) Comprehensive instructional program:

    What should be included in an comprehensive instructional program?
    direct, explicit, skills, and strategy lessons BUT it should also include many opportunities for students to read and write.
  20. (2) Comprehensive instructional program:

    In a comprehensive instruction program giving the students many opportunities to read and write does what?
    These activities challenge the students to do many things, such as reading books the teacher has selected, reading books they have selected themselves, reading social studies and science textbooks, reading plays through readers theater, chanting poems and rhymes aloud, writing in journals, composing and send emails to student in other countries, authoring original poems and stories, and discussing books and stories in small-group formats.
  21. C) Instructional Decisions Based on Ongoing Assessment Results:

    You should make instructional decisions based on what?
    • The results of ongoing assessment that utilizes a variety of assessment tools.
    • E.g., 1st graders to hear the difference in long and short vowel sounds in single syllable words. (Difference between bit/bite, bat/bait, bed/bead)
  22. C) Instructional Decisions Based on Ongoing Assessment Results:

    Why would you assess your students?
    To determine who has achieved this standard and who has not.
  23. C) Instructional Decisions Based on Ongoing Assessment Results:

    For students who have not met he reading standard what will you do next?
    Those who have met the standard will work on other reading activities while you provide direct instruction to those children who have not yet met the standard.
  24. D) Systematic and Explicit instruction-Preventing Reading difficulties before they occur:

    Recently there has been a emphasis on the importance of what in teaching reading?
    Systematic, direct, and explicit skill and strategy instruction.
  25. C) Instructional Decisions Based on Ongoing Assessment Results:

    What are the two dimensions of systematic teaching?
    • 1) The teacher knows precisely what skills and strategies each student at each grade level should master, as defined by the relevant set of content standards.
    • 2) The teacher is systematic in that the results of assessments focus instructional planning- those students who are not acquiring a skill or strategy are grouped together for additional lessons.
  26. C) Instructional Decisions Based on Ongoing Assessment Results:

    Direct and explicit skill and strategy lessons are what?
  27. C) Instructional Decisions Based on Ongoing Assessment Results:

    What is the objective of direct and explicit skill and strategy lessons?
    To teach a specific reading skill or strategy.
  28. C) Instructional Decisions Based on Ongoing Assessment Results:

    Direct and explicit skill and strategy lessons are best taught how?
    In small groups of students who share a common need. E.g., 1st grade teacher implements three lessons for 5 students who are having difficulty understanding that in words with the CVCe pattern, the vowel is long (words like bite and cake).
  29. C) Instructional Decisions Based on Ongoing Assessment Results:

    What is the goal of systematic and explicit instruction in the early grades?
    Is to prevent reading difficulties
  30. C) Instructional Decisions Based on Ongoing Assessment Results:

    What do effective reading/language arts programs focus on?
    Prevention rather than remediation
  31. What does remediation mean?
    The process of helping children 'catch up' and learn what his or her classmates have already mastered.
  32. The basic components of Direct instruction?
    • 1) Setting clear goals for
    • students and making sure they understand these goals.
  33. 2) Presenting a sequence of
    well-organized assignments.
  34. 3) Giving students clear, concise
    explanations and illustrations of the subject matter.
  35. 4) Asking frequent questions to
    see if the students understand the work.
  36. 5) Giving students frequent
    opportunities to practice what they have learned.
  37. Explicit instruction?
    • Set a purpose for learning (telling-explanation)
    • Tell students what to do (modeling-showing)
    • Show them how to do it (practice-guiding)
    • until independence is reached
  38. Systematic instruction?
    • Systematic instruction refers to a carefully planned sequence for instruction,
    • similar to a builder’s blueprint for a house.
  39. True or false?

    Even the most successful instructional programs will have some children who are struggling readers?
  40. What are the remedial programs that focus on our youngest readers who are having difficulty called?
    intervention programs
  41. What do intervention programs try to address?
    reading difficulties at the first possible opportunity.
  42. What do intervention programs offer?
    individualized instruction, like reading recovery, which features highly trained teachers working in one-to-one settings.  Others programs provide intervention to children in small groups.
  43. E) Mastery of skills- Development Issues and Foundational Skills:

    The ELA content standards define what?
    What skills and knowledge children should acquire at each grade level.
  44. E) Mastery of skills- Development Issues and Foundational Skills:

    There is a developmental aspect to learning to read, why?
    That some skills that are appropriate for children at one grade level would be difficult, it not impossible, to teach at an earlier grade.
  45. E) Mastery of skills- Development Issues and Foundational Skills:

    In reading how are skills and knowledge learned?
    • They cannot be learned unless children have mastered prerequisite skills and knowledge.
    • E.g., A standard requires 5th graders to draw inferences, conclusions, or generalizations about text and support them with textual evidence and prior knowledge when reading grade-level-appropriate texts. This would be hard for a 2nd grader who would have to read a 5th grade textbook.
  46. E) Mastery of skills- Development Issues and Foundational Skills:

    What are the prerequisite skills for drawing inferences, conclusion, and generalizations in 5th grade?
    A 5th grader should have mastered the 2nd grade standard of "knowing the meaning of simple prefixes and suffixes" couldn't make generalizations from a chapter in a 5th grade social studies textbook, which would be filled with many words with common prefixes and suffixes.
  47. F) Differentiated Instruction:

    Teachers must address the full range of learners in the classroom and convey what?
    high expectation to all learners
  48. F) Differentiated Instruction:

    Almost all teachers will have what types of students in their classes?
    Those who are acquiring English as a second language (English learners), children who speak nonstandard dialects of English (speakers of nonstandard English), students who have difficulty learning to read (struggling readers), students with learning disabilities (students with special needs), and students with extraordinary ability (advanced learners).
  49. F) Differentiated Instruction:

    Since teachers have students who are unique a teacher must do what to instruction? Why?
    Differentiate instruction because she/he must meet the individual differences.
  50. F) Differentiated Instruction:

    How do you know if instruction has been differentiated?
    If the teacher has made adjustments to meet the needs of individual students or a group of students sharing the same need.
  51. F) Differentiated Instruction:

    What are some ways instruction becomes differentiated?
    • The teacher no longer relies solely on whole-group lessons.  Teacher should use a variety of grouping formats.
    • Teacher selects appropriate strategies for different groups of children.
  52. F) Differentiated Instruction:

    Give an example(s) of how a teacher may differentiate instruction for a struggling reader?
    A teacher may narrow the focus to a skill, reteach certain concepts, and increase the number of concrete examples used in a lesson.
  53. F) Differentiated Instruction:

    What does differentiated instruction mean?
    • It means that the teacher chooses different resources and materials for different groups of students. 
    • E.g., advanced learners ask to read texts that would be far beyond the comprehension of their classmates.
  54. (2) Key factors in differentiated reading instruction:

    A) Students knowledge & skills (1st grade standard-decoding/word recognition)

    The teacher should monitor student progress in decoding and word recognition how?
    Collect data on an ongoing basis
  55. (2) Key factors in differentiated reading instruction:

    A) Students knowledge & skills (1st grade standard-decoding/word recognition)

    By monitoring student progress the teacher should know what?
    Which of his/her students are strong in decoding and word recognition & who is having difficulty in this type of task.
  56. what are common word families?
    Pattern of words that help emigrant readers recognize patterns.  Also, known as phonograms or chucks.
  57. (2) Key factors in differentiated reading instruction:

    b) Prerequisite knowledge and skills

    Teachers should have what sort of information about each student?
    Each student's mastery of prerequisite skills and knowledge
  58. (2) Key factors in differentiated reading instruction:

    B) Prerequisite knowledge and skills

    What should the students have mastered by now? Explain
    Their initial consonant sounds.  For example, they should be able to read words with ate, such as date, fate, and mate.  They must be able to associate the correct sound d, f, and m.
  59. (2) Key factors in differentiated reading instruction:

    c) Pacing of instruction

    In order to plan instructional pacing what things must the teacher know first?
    1) Good sense where students are in regards to knowledge and skills in the area of decoding

    2) knows where the students are regards to prerequisite knowledge and skills
  60. (2) Key factors in differentiated reading instruction:

    c) Pacing of instruction

    When the teacher needs to make instructional pacing decision what is included?
    How many lesson it will take to achieve the objective

    How long each lesson should take
  61. (2) Key factors in differentiated reading instruction:

    c) Pacing of instruction

    In planning instruction why must a teacher differentiate instruction?
    Some children may need more lesson than their peers and some may need adapted lessons that go at a slower pace.
  62. (2) Key factors in differentiated reading instruction:

    d) Complexity of the Content/skills to be presented

    The difficulty of the skill students are asked to learn will affect several instruction decisions, which are?
    Less differentiation for an area that is not difficult
  63. (2) Key factors in differentiated reading instruction:

    e) scoffold

    The Framework defines a scaffold as?
    Temporary support, guidance, or assistance provided to a student on a new or complex task
  64. (2) Key factors in differentiated reading instruction:

    e) Scaffold

    The 1st grade standard decoding/word recognition two levels of scaffold can be used, define them:
    • 1) initial lessons for the whole group
    • 2) small-group or individualized lessons for students having difficulty
  65. (2) Key factors in differentiated reading instruction:

    e) Scaffold

    The 1st grade standard decoding/word recognition two levels of scaffold can be used, define them:

    Describe the scaffold procedures for the whole group:
    Students are asked to blend d, f, g, m, and r with -ate to make date, fate, gate, mate, and rate.

    Teacher will model the blending process by using her left hand to pretend to hold the consonant sound and her right hand to hold -ate.  Teacher blends the sound to make words, her two arms come together.
  66. (2) Key factors in differentiated reading instruction:

    e) Scaffold

    The 1st grade standard decoding/word recognition two levels of scaffold can be used, define them:

    Describe the scaffold procedures for the small group:
    Start each of 3 booster lessons by reviewing the initial consonant sounds involved.
  67. (3) Organizing Instruction to Meet the Needs of All Students: 

    A) Flexible grouping, individualized instruction, and whole-class instruction:

    Why do teachers form flexible groups?
    1) So children who share the need for reading skill or strategy will be taught efficiently

    2) The exist for a single purpose and will be disbanded as soon as the teacher has completed the lessons planned for the group
  68. (3) Organizing Instruction to Meet the Needs of All Students: 

    A) Flexible grouping, individualized instruction, and whole-class instruction:

    Give an example of flexible groups:
    Kindergarten teacher has assessed her students and determined that 5 out the 19 students do have the concepts about print called "directionality".  The group of 5 will receive a three-lesson sequence of remedial lessons.
  69. (3) Organizing Instruction to Meet the Needs of All Students: 

    b) The use of Core CA SBE-Adopted Materials:

    What does SBE stand for?
    State Board of Education
  70. (3) Organizing Instruction to Meet the Needs of All Students: 

    b) The use of Core CA SBE-adopted Materials:

    What are the 5 types of material for reading/language arts instruction approved by SBE?
    • 1) Almost all districts will purchase SBE-adopted reading/language basic programs.
    • 2)Programs that provide additional instruction for ELLs
    • 3) Programs written in language other than English
    • 4) Intensive intervention programs for struggling readers/ELLs in grades 4-8/
  71. (3) Organizing Instruction to Meet the Needs of All Students: 

    b) The Use of Core CA SBE-adopted Materials:

    The basal reading program consists of what?
    • 1. Teachers manual
    • 2. Student text (basal or reader)
    • 3.  Student workbooks &/ or reproducible worksheets
    • 4. supplemental books
    • 5. CDs with additional resources
    • 6. package of assessment tools
  72. (3) Organizing Instruction to Meet the Needs of All Students: 

    b) The use of Core CA SBE-adopted Materials:

    What must the Basal reading programs include?
    • 1. Resources to help ELL, struggling readers, & advanced learners.
    • 2. Support materials for struggling readers that provide 30 mins addition instruction
    • 3. Lesson plans for this additional instruction must be included in the teachers edition/student materials
  73. (3) Organizing Instruction to Meet the Needs of All Students: 

    C) Benchmark, Strategic, and Intensive Groups:

    Effective teachers will implement what for struggling students? WHY?
    different levels and types of intervention because student have different levels of difficulty
  74. (3) Organizing Instruction to Meet the Needs of All Students: 

    C) Benchmark, Strategic, and Intensive Group:

    One system to classify struggling students uses what 3 categories?
    Benchmark, strategic, and intensive group
  75. (3) Organizing Instruction to Meet the Needs of All Students: 

    c) Benchmark, Strategic, and Intensive Group:

    What is the Benchmark group?
    • 1. Students are experiencing small level of difficulty in achieving standards
    • 2. Differentiated instruction doesn't require separate resources.
    • 3. Small amount of help from the basal reading program will help
    • 4. Classroom teacher can provide the help
  76. (3) Organizing Instruction to Meet the Needs of All Students: 

    c) Benchmark, Strategic, and Intensive Group:

    What is the Strategic Group?
    • 1. 1 or 2 grade years behind their peers
    • 2. Reteaching basal reading program will not work 
    • 3. Classroom teachers will need special lessons & use additional sources
    • 4. Specially trained tutors may help the classroom teacher
  77. (3) Organizing Instruction to Meet the Needs of All Students:

     c) Benchmark, Strategic, and Intensive Group:

    What are Intensive Groups?
    • 1. Often more than 2 years behind
    • 2. Many will be in special education program
    • 3. Lessons will have the highest level of differentiation
    • 4. Use special resources
    • 5. Almost all lessons will have a slower pace
    • 6. Lessons will be designed so that complex/complicated knowledge will broken down into more "manageable" chucks.
  78. (4) Components of Effective instructional delivery in the CA Reading/Language Arts Framework:

    a) Orientation:

    What does the Framework model of instruction for reading lessons include?
    • a) Orientation
    • b) Presentation
    • c) Structured and Guided Practice
    • d) Independent Practice and Application
  79. (4) Components of Effective instructional delivery in the CA Reading/Language Arts Framework:

    a) Orientation:

    In this phase of the lesson what does the teacher do to orient students to the knowledge and skills they will be taught?
    • 1. Can provide an overview of what will take place in the lesson
    • 2. Stressing what students will be expected to do
    • 3. Can bring an artifact  
    • 4. display an illustration
    • 5. Write an important word on the board
  80. (4) Components of Effective instructional delivery in the CA Reading/Language Arts Framework:

    b) Presentation:

    In this phase of the lesson the teacher should present the lesson how?
    Direct and explicit
  81. Explain how frustration, challenging, and easy level book should be assigned.
    • Frustration:  Read aloud by teacher
    • Challenging: Direct instruction (within grasp)
    • Easy: Self-paced, silent reading
  82. How should teachers read aloud? Why?
    with enthusiasm and dramatic effect because it can affect the reading habits of students
  83. The key is to bring books that are what? when reading a loud.
    Related to the read-aloud selection to class.  Such as books written by the same author
  84. Discussion about literature, if done properly, can motivate student to do what?
    Read and provide a lifelong appreciation of literature
  85. Book club
    • 1.  Small groups of students assigned by the teacher to read the same book
    • 2. Meet occasionally while they read the same book and immediately after they have finished
    • 3. Teacher presents questions to members that are open-ended & provocative
    • 4. Teacher can assign roles 
  86. Literature Circles
    • 1.  Small group
    • 2. Each student has selected what each member of the circle will read
    • 3. Teacher can have a list of books 
    • 4. Teacher deliver a book talk on each book then students select which book they want to read
    • 5. Circle are formed / process similar to book club
  87. Author studies
    • 1. Teacher will assign students to read books from an prominent author of children's literature
    • 2. Students presents book talks 
    • 3. Students critically analyze the author's work to answer the question, "What makes the author's book special?"
  88. Material children read independently will usually include?
    Fiction, but should also include biographies, information books, magazines, and newspapers
  89. Teacher should guide students to read what?
    high quality children's book and in some cases assign books for children to read
  90. Independent reading should be what?
    Self-selected and Self-paced
  91. What is meant by self-selected & self-paced ?
    Self-selected:  child chooses what they will read

    Self-paced:  child reads the book with no externally imposed deadline
  92. What are the advantages of independent reading?
    • 1. Provides greater familiarity with language patterns
    • 2. Increases reading fluency
    • 3. Increases vocabulary
    • 4. Broadens knowledge in the content areas
    • 5. Motivates further reading 
  93. What is each student's independent reading level?
    Books that can be read easily with little help from the teacher
  94. What is the Goldilocks Test?
    Tell students to pick a book that is not too easy, not too hard, but just right.
  95. Five Fingers Test
    In 2nd grade or higher- Students chooses a book, turns to the middle of book and begins to read.  Puts a finger up for each word he/she cannot read.  If 5 fingers are up before end of page its time to choose another book
  96. I + I Strategy to motivate independent reading
    • a) Students independent reading level
    • b) Student's personal interest
  97. How can teachers differentiate instruction for students with IEPs and Section 503 Plan?
    • 1 Give students more time
    • 2. Divide the assessment into smaller units
    • 3. Change the mode of delivery
    • 4. Provide practice assessments
    • 5. Provide a simpler version of the assesment
  98. Provide example of giving students more time to complete a task.
    • 5th grader- Test write 2 different ending.
    • Class has 6mins but IEP/504 plan is given 60 mins.
  99. Provide example of how to divide the assessment into smaller units
    • 5th grader- Test write 2 different endings.
    • 1st day- write happy ending (30mins)
    • 2nd day- write sad ending (30mins)
  100. Give example of changing mode of delivery for IEP / 504 student.
    Take a task from written exercise to an oral activity.  Working one-on-one with student, teacher will ask student to tell rather than write the 2 endings
  101. Provide Practice Assessments
    Let student practice the assessment task in advance of the summative assessment.  In small group, the teacher would ask students to write the alternative ending for another story.  Teacher walks the student through the task, providing feedback.
  102. Provide a simpler version of the assessment
    Requires them to read something written at a simpler level.  In this case the teacher would note that the standard was not met with grade-level materials
  103. Reliability: How do we know a test is reliable?
    The results of the test yield consistent scores across administration.  

    • E.g. Form A (April 1) / Form B (April 2)
    • Both teats yield scores almost identical
  104. Validity: A test is valid if ?
    it measures what it claims to measure
  105. How to interpret the results of standardized tests:
    • 1. Percentile Scores
    • 2. Grade Equivalent Scores
    • 3. Stanine  Scores
  106. What can commercially produced standardized test that are administered nationally yield?
    norm-referenced scores
  107. What do norm-referenced scores allow?
    Allow for comparisons between the students taking the tests and a national average.
  108. What is a norm?
    Comparison scores
  109. Explain comparison scores (norms).
    4th grader taking a reading comprehension test gets 42 out 60 correct. 42 is a raw score. A norm-reference scores lets you know if this is good.  It compares the scores with the average score all 4th graders got when they took the test.  E.g. 33 is average then 42 is above average.   He might have a percentile score of 78 & a grade-level equivalent score of 6.3.  Both tell us he is reading above national norm.
  110. Percentile Scores
    • 1. Are norm-reference scores
    • 2. Higher percentile score the better
    • 3.  Average percentile score is 50. Someone with PS of 15 has done poorly on test. Scoring higher than only 15% of the sampling group
    • 4. A PS of 78 means that student has a higher raw score then 78% of the sampling group
  111. Grade equivalent Scores
    • 1. Norm-referenced
    • 2. Student's raw score is converted to a school grade level.
    • 3. 4th grader with 42 out 60 correct raw score is 42, PS 78%, Grade equivalent score something like 6.3
    • 4. GES 6.3 means that his performance corresponds to what a sixth grader in the third month of school would, on average achieve.
  112. Stanine Scores
    • 1.  Norm-referenced
    • 2. "Stanine" short for standard nine
    • 3. Raw scores are converted to a nine-point scale.
    • 4. The # 5 is the average, 9 is the top, 1 is the bottom.
    • 5. 4th grader would have a stanine score of 8 (78% percentile, 42 raw score, grade equivalent score 6.3)
  113. What must assessments do for the teacher?
    Provide data that will allow a teacher to determine whether or not each child has met each standard.
  114. What is the summative function of assessment?
    To reach a judgement on the student's level of perfomance
  115. Along with standardized tests scoring rubrics have been developed? What do these rubrics establish?
    A criteria for judging and classifying each student's performance.
  116. Whether or not you work for a district that has developed standards-based assessments, what provides the teacher with information of student performance?
    The daily performance of students on lessons and activities will provide data on whether or not they have met grade-level standards.
  117. What must the teacher do with the information about student performance of the standards?
    The teacher must interpret the data and, in regards to any one standard, be able to place students in three categories.
  118. When a teacher uses data to interpret how a student did on any one standard what 3 categories must he/she classify his/her students?
    • 1. Below the level of performance- have not yet the standard.
    • 2. Are at the expected level of performance- they have met the standard
    • 3. Above the expected level of performance- they not only met the standard, but exceeded it.
  119. What should a teacher do with test scores?
    • 1. Analyze
    • 2. Interpret
    • 3. Use Results
  120. What should the data from assessment be used for?
    • 1. Determine if child has met grade-level standard
    • 2.To plan instruction
  121. What is one function of assessment?
    Is to reach a conclusion about whether or not individual students have met the grade-level standards.
  122. Teachers should organize the the results of assessment at 2 levels. What are they?
    • 1. Individualized profiles
    • 2. Class profiles
  123. Individual Profiles
    • 1. Chart/or summary of how each student is doing in regards to the standards.
    • 2. It should reveal whether or not the child is below, at, or above the expected level of performance or each standard
    • 3. Separate sheet for each of the relevant grade-level standards.
  124. Class Profile
    1. Chart/or summary of how all the children in the class collectively are performing on the standards
  125. How can the individual profile help the teacher?
    • 1. Teacher can plan interventions to help each student
    • 2. Students who are really struggling will need individualized remediation lessons
    • 3. Students having some success, but are still below expectations on the same standard, can be grouped  for small-group lessons
  126. What is another important point about the interpretation of the results of any assessment?
    Teachers should place the results of any one assessment in the context of other recently administered tests.
  127. What does it mean to put the results of an administered tests in context of other recently administered tests?
    Is the results consistent with how the student has been doing lately?  Or are the results inconsistent.  If the results are not consistent then the assessment should be readministered.
  128. What is a "team" approach for students who are struggling, but don't have IEPs?
    • 1. The team may include Classroom Teacher
    • 2. The parents
    • 3. The principle
    • 4. Any other teacher who work with the student (PE specialist, music teacher, speech therapist,etc)
  129. In the "team" approach for students who are struggling, but who don't have an IEP, what role does their individual profile play?
    Individual profile will provide the information the team needs to develop a plan to help the student- a specific description of the student's strengths & weaknesses
  130. The class profile can be used for what?
    To adjust instruction for the whole class
  131. What are some questions you might ask yourself when adjusting instruction?
    • Is it okay to move on?
    • What types of lessons were successful?
  132. The class profile in this case shows that a lot of students met the grade-level standard.  How can you adjust instruction?
    • 1. Many students didn't need help identifying the front cover, back cover, & title page of book.
    • 2. Other children did need help & took part in a three-lesson sequence
    • 3. Some students were below the standard at the entry-level assessment & made little progress during the three-lesson sequence & the days after etc.
  133. A student named ralph placed below in his 1st & 2nd assessment.  He didn't meet the grade-level standard at the end of 2nd summative assessment while everyone else did. What are steps the teacher would take from the beginning to help Ralph & students alike?
    • 1. Provide a three-sequence lessons (if no-little progress is made- grade-level standard not met move on to #2)
    • 2. Small-group remediation lesson (if Ralph or other student don't meet grade-level standard move on to #3)
    • 3. Individual intervention
  134. What are the assessment to determine students' reading levels?
    • 1. Informal reading inventories
    • 2. Word recognition lists
    • 3. Graded reading passages
  135. Define: Informal Reading Inventories (IRI)
    What is it used for?
    • Its used for determining students' reading level
    • 1. A battery or collection, of assessments administered individually to students
  136. How does IRI Informal Reading inventories done?
    • 1. One adult gives the assessment to one student
    • 2. No two IRI have to contain the same collections of assessments
  137. The IRI informal reading inventories selection of assessments depends on what?
    students reading level
  138. Give an example of IRI informal reading inventories selection.
    6th grader with average ability would not include assessments of concepts about print, phonemic awareness, and phonics.
  139. What IRI informal reading inventories assessment would a 1st grader with average ability have?
    • 1. Word Recognition Lists
    • 2. Graded Reading Passages
    • 3. Reading Interest Survey
    • 4. Assessments Measuring Concepts About Print
    • 5. Phonemic Awareness Assessment
    • 6. Phonics Assessments
    • 7. Assessments of Reading Fluency
    • 8. Structural Analysis Assessments
    • 9. Vocabulary Assessments
    • 10.Spelling Tests
  140. Define: Word Recognition Lists 

    What is used for?
    Its an assessment to determine students' reading level.

    • 1. Sometimes called "graded word lists"
    • 2. Lists of words, usually 10 in each list
    • 3. List for every reading level
  141. In word recognition lists what is it called for Kindergarteners?
    Preprimer level or "PP"
  142. What does the Preprimer level or "PP" word recognition list have?
    1. Words such as the, am, and or
  143. In word recognition lists (determining students' reading level) what is the next more difficult list of words for Kindergarteners?
    Primer Level or "P"
  144. Recognition word lists have a list of words for what grades?
    K- preprimer level, primer level

    1-8 grade list of words
  145. Do some IRI informal reading inventories include word list for High School students?
    Some IRI do have word list for high school students
  146. Words in the 8th grade should be what? Give an example
    • Difficult.
    • Psychology, endorsement
  147. What is the Bader Reading and Language Inventory 3rd edition)?
    The word recognition lists from one IRI informal reading inventories
  148. What does a student do with a word recognition list?
    Child reads aloud each word
  149. What are the 3 purposes of word recognition lists?
    • 1. To provide a rough guess of the child's reading level so that whoever is administering the tests know where to start on the graded passages
    • 2. To provide information on the child's "sight" vocabulary, the words the child can correctly identify
    • 3. To provide information about the student's ability to use sound-symbol relationships (phonics) to decode words.
  150. A word recognition lists test can provide information about a student's ability to use sound-symbol  relationships (phonics) to decode words.  What else does it do in this context?
    The child's errors will provide a partial picture of what letters and letter combinations the child knows and which one he/she needs to learn
  151. What is the most important part of the IRI?
    The graded reading passages
  152. The graded reading passages are provided to what grades?
    Preprimer for kindergarteners to 8th grade
  153. What does graded reading passages usually include?
    two or more passages for each grade
  154. Typically, the student is asked to do what with the graded reading passage?
    Read the passage aloud
  155. What does the teacher do while the student reads aloud?
    Teacher keeps a detailed record of the student's performance
  156. How does the teacher take detail notes of the student's performance during a graded reading passage?
    Teacher can record what the student says while the student is reading, but its easier to tape record the child.
  157. What is the most popular form of the process of noting details of the student's performance during a graded reading passage?
    Running Record, developed in New Zealand
  158. Why do teachers take running recordings of the student's performance during a graded reading passage?
    To look at the student's error the teacher can gain a better understanding of how the student reads.
  159. What four things does a teacher look of in the performance of a student during a graded reading passage?
    • 1. Miscue Analysis
    • 2. Graphophonemic Errors
    • 3. Semantic Errors
    • 4. Syntactic Errors
  160. What is Miscue Analysis?  When is it used?
    Examining a record of a student's oral reading to identify and classify errors.

    It is used during a graded reading passage
  161. Do all commercially published IRI use the same system for teachers to record the child's oral reading performance during a graded reading passage?
  162. What are Graphophonemic Errors? When is it used?
    Comes from the Greek words for symbol and sound.  These are errors related to the sound-symbol relationships for English.
  163. What is an example of Graphophonemic Errors?
    Reading feather for father
  164. A child who repeatedly makes graphophonemic errors  is either, what? 
    • 1. Reading word by word and depending too much on phonics to decode each word
    • 2. Reading a passage that is too difficult 
  165. Children who are reading word by word need to be taught what?
    To speed up
  166. Children who don't use the meaning of the sentences and paragraphs to decode words need to be taught what?
    To use what are called contextual sense
  167. What is Semantic Errors? When is used to identify an issue in a child's reading ability?
    These are meaning-related errors, such as dad for father
  168. What has the student who makes a semantic error relied too much on and hasn't used graphophonemic clues?
    The semantic cueing system
  169. A child who repeatedly makes semantic errors says what about his/her reading?
    Understands what he or she is reading, but needs to be taught to use phonics skills to be sure that every word read makes sense from a graphophonemic sense 
  170. What are Syntactic Errors? 
    To a linguist, syntax is the way words are placed in order in sentences.
  171. What is a syntactic error?
    Reading into for through. Both are prepositions.
  172. Syntactic errors make sense why?
    In that the error is the same part of speech as the correct word.
  173. A child who repeatedly makes syntactic errors needs to do what?
    pay more attention to phonics
  174. How to define frustration, instructional, and independent reading levels:

    After the child reads the graded reading passage she/he is asked to do what?
    Answer comprehension questions for the passage
  175. What does the teacher do with the comprehension questions the student is suppose to answer about the passage? How does the student answer the questions?
    • The teacher will read the questions aloud.
    • The student will answer the question orally.
  176. To check for understanding of the graded reading passage for kindergarteners, 1st graders, and 2nd graders the teacher can do what?
    Ask the student to retell the story
  177. IRI provides details that the student should mention. What are they?
    List of characters, places, and events in the passage
  178. What is a retelling? Does it work?
    When a teacher asks a student to retell a story (passage). Yes, its been shown to work well.
  179. What does the graded reading passage ultimately help the teacher determine of the student's reading?
    To determine each child's frustration, instructional, and independent reading levels..
  180. Define Independent Reading Level? What are the characteristics?
    • 1. Books/stories at this level can be read and understood by the child without assistance by the teacher.
    • 2. Is the highest passage for which the student reads aloud 95% or more of words correctly 
    • 3. Answers 90% or more of the comprehension questions correctly
  181. Define Instructional Reading Level. What are the characteristics?
    • 1. Material at this level can be read and understood by the student with help from the teacher.
    • 2. The student's reading textbook (basal reading) should be at this level.
    • 3. Is the highest passage for which the student reads aloud 90% or more of the words correctly
    • 4. Answers at least 60% of the comprehension question correctly
  182. Define Frustration Reading Level. What are the characteristics?
    • 1. Books at this level cannot be read and understood by the child, even with help
    • 2. The child can listen to the teacher or an adult read aloud at this level and understand it
    • 3. For a passage at this level, the child correctly read aloud less than 90% of the words
    • 4. Did not answer 60% of the comprehension questions correctly
  183. To determine a child's instructional and independent level of reading the teacher must know what?
    • 1. The percentage of the words the child read aloud correctly
    • 2. The percentage of comprehension questions the child correctly answered
  184. How to Communicate Results to Students for the graded reading passage?
    • 1. Communication about daily progress
    • 2. Individual conferences
    • 3. written summaries of progress
  185. When should a teacher give feedback of student's performance in a graded reading passage?
    When the student does will and when they are struggling.  
  186. Why should a child know when they have done well and when they are struggling?
    The child needs to know what he or she can do to make more progress
  187. What will the teacher do in communication about daily progress?
    Teachers will give feedback to the students informally on a daily basis. 
  188. Communication about daily progress will take the form of what?
    • 1. Much of the communication will be oral
    • 2. Written feedback will be provided on many assignments
  189. What challenge do primary-level teachers face when communicating results to students?
    Students have a good idea of how they are progressing
  190. Communication should be based on what?
    The standards
  191. What is the important thing to do and remember when communicating results to students?
    • 1. Make communication specific
    • 2. Avoid global comments ("you aren't doing well"
    • 3. When the child is struggling, he/she needs to know what he/she do to make more progress
  192. Why should teachers plan individual conferences with students?
    • 1. Review the child's progress
    • 2. Provide corrective feedback
  193. How often should a teacher meet with individual students?
    every 3 weeks for about 15mins
  194. What do successful individual conferences have?
    A narrow focus- the teacher should focus on a single standard
  195. Students should see summaries of how they are doing on what?
    several standards
  196. When or how often should written summaries of progress be shared with students?
    Each month or quarterly
  197. What should the written summaries of progress be like?
    • 1. A form the child can understand
    • 2. Each student would know which standards have been met and which need further work
  198. How to communicate results to parents/guardians?
    • 1. Communication about daily/weekly progress
    • 2. Parent/Guardian conferences
    • 3. Written summaries of student achievement of the standards
    • 4. emails and telephone calls
  199. When communicating results to parent what is important?
    That the parents/guardians get the "big picture"
  200. During communication about student's progress a parent should receive what information?
    • 1. Information about the grade-level standards that their children are expected to achieve
    • 2. They should know how and when they will be informed of their child's progress
  201. All communication with parents/guardians should be focused on what?
    English-Language Arts Content Standards
  202. Communication about daily/weekly progress:

    What kind of work should parent see and how often?
    • 1. They don't have to see every pencil-and-paper assignment
    • 2. Work in the area of English-Language Arts
    • 3. Every week
  203. It is important that the teacher's evaluation of the student's work be what?
    • 1. CLEAR-
    • 2. Parents need to know if their child's effort was satisfactory
    • 3. Know what specific areas of need or strength the assignments reveals.
  204. When do most CA school districts require a conference?
    Late October or early November
  205. Effective teacher meet with which kinds of students before the require timeline?
    • 1. ELL
    • 2. Students who are struggling
    • 3. Advanced students
  206. What would the early conferences before the required timeline with specific students entail?
    • 1. Focus on the special needs of the child
    • 2. Discuss what classroom interventions the teacher has planned
    • 3. Provide guidance for how parents/guardians can help at home
  207. Most districts require what sort of written summaries of student achievement of the standards?
    A written evaluation form of some sort
  208. A written evaluation form of some sore should include what?
    • 1. lists each standard
    • 2. Evaluation of the student's progress on meeting each of them
    • 3. Are part of the FAll/Spring parent conference
    • 4. Teachers send these out to parents more frequently
  209. When are emails or telephones call used?
    When something of particular note occurs one day, whether positive or negative
  210. What is a cumulative record?
    A file in the school office that has written summaries of student achievement . These records follows the student to middle & high school.
  211. Phonological awareness
    The knowledge that oral English is composed of smaller units
  212.  A child who has phonological awareness can do what?
    1. Identify and manipulate sounds in many different "levels" of language
  213. How can sounds be manipulated in different levels of language?
    • 1. individual sounds- that is, phonemic awareness
    • 2. sounds in larger units of language such as words & syllables
  214. Phonemic awareness is a subcategory of?
    phonological awareness
  215. phonological awareness involves what?
    the ability to distinguish the separate phonemes (or sounds) in a spoken word
  216. Give an example of a child who is phonemically aware.
    Child can identify duck and luck as rhyming words OR say that duck has three sounds and they are /d/, /u/, /k/
  217. The development of phonemic awareness is an important teaching goal for teachers in what grades?
    Kindergarten and 1st grader
  218. What is Phonics? Give example.
    Is the knowledge of letter-sound correspondences

    E.g. That in the words phonics the letters ph make the /f/ sound 
  219. Definitions:
                    The Alphabetic Principle
    This principle states that speech sounds are represented by letters.  English is an alphabetic language because symbols represent sounds. The sounds are called phonemes.
  220. Definitions:
    As a speech sound in a language that signals a difference in meaning.  

    Are the smallest units of speech
  221. Give an example of phoneme. 
    /v/ and /b/ are English phonemes because there is a difference between vote and boat
  222. There are 2 ways to represent phonemes: 
    The phonetic Alphabet and Graphemes
  223. Phonetic Alphabet
    • 1. Are created by linguists so that each phoneme is always represented by the same symbol.
    • 2. There is one-to-one correspondence between the phonemes and the symbol
  224. What does it mean that there there is always a one-to-one correspondence between the phoneme and the symbol?
    E.g. phonemic symbol /e/ always represents the "long a" sound

    This sound may be represented by several graphemes- such as the ay in say, the ei in neighborhood, or the ey in prey.
  225. Graphemes (explain)
    Are the English letters or letters that represent phonemes

    The phoneme /b/ in bat is represented by the grapheme b.
  226. Do Graphemes only consists of one letter? Provide example.
    No, they also consists of more than one letter. 

    the phoneme /k/ in duck is represented by the grapheme ck.
  227. Vowels sounds are made when?
    the air leaving your lungs is vibrated in the voice box and there is a clear passage from the voice box to your mouth.
  228. In English the following letters always represent vowel sounds: Also, what 2 letters sometimes represent the vowel sounds?
    a, e, i, o, u

    • Sometimes: y, in words such as sky
    •                   w, in words such as cow
  229. Long vowel sounds occur when? Provide example.
    When they "say their name" such as in bake and bite
  230. When doe short vowels occur in what words?
    cat, pet, bit, cot, but
  231. R-controlled vowels are what (long or short)? Provide examples of words.
    They are neither long or short.  In the sounds a makes in care, e as in her, i as in girl, u as in hurt, and o as in for.
  232. Consonants
    Speech sounds that occur when the airflow is obstructed in some way by your mouth, teeth, or lips
  233. Onset and Rimes
    • Think Syllable!
    • Occur in a single syllable.
    • In a syllable the onset is the initial consonant sound or consonant blend
    • The Rime is the vowel sound and any consonants that follow.
  234. Where do onsets and rime occur?
  235. All syllables must have what? What might a syllable have or might not have?
    Syllable must have a rime.  It may or may not have an onset.
  236. What would you say if someone asked you what he onset and rime of napkin is?
    • Think Syllables!!
    • Nap- Onset is N - Rime is ap
    • Kin-  Onset is K - Rime is in
  237. Phonograms
    These are rims that have same spelling
  238. Words that share the same phonograms are what?
    word families
  239. Example of Rimes or Phonograms
    Word family: Rime or Phonograms: at: cat, bat, sat
  240. What is the role of phonological and phonemic awareness in reading development?
    Longitudinal studies say: reading acquistion-that the acquisition of phonemic awareness is Highly Predictive of Success in Learning to Read. 
  241. What does the level of a chid's level of phonemic awareness suggest about their reading ability?
    Kindergarten- A child's phonemic awareness strongly correlates with his/her level of reading achievement (word recognition/comprehension) at the end of 1st grade.
  242. Why is Phonemic Awareness so important in learning how to read?
    It is the foundation for understanding the sound-symbol relationships of English taught through phonics lessons.
  243. How to teach Phonological Awareness of Larger Units of Language:
    • 1. Word awareness
    • 2. Syllable awareness
    • 3. Word blending
    • 4. Syllable Blending
    • 5. Onset and Rime Blending
  244. Word Awareness:

    What is the goal of word awareness?
    The goal it to help children become aware that sentences are made up of words.
  245. What does word awareness require children to do?
    To detect and identify word boundaries (e.g. that the sentence I like ice cream has four words.)
  246. Lessons for word boundaries should consist of how many words in a sentence?
    one-wor, two-word, and three-word sentences, each word with one syllable
  247. Explain an lesson for word awareness.
    • 1. Teacher has cards with a word written on each card.
    • 2. The teacher builds two-word sentences (Tom runs).
    • 3. The sentence is read as a whole, and then each word is read separately, with the teacher tapping the word card.
    • 4. Finally, a third word is added to the sentence (Tom runs fast).
  248. What is a more challenging task for a lesson on word awareness?
    • 1. Teacher saying a two-word, three-word, or four-word sentence
    • 2. Then asking the children to state how many words were in the sentence
  249. Syllable Awareness:

    Why will syllable awareness be more difficult for more children than word awareness?
    • 1. Because syllables, by themselves, are meaningless
    • 2. Many children in kindergarten will not know they exist
  250. Describe a venerable instructional activity to learn syllable awareness?
    1. Ask children to clap their hands as they say each syllable in a two-syllable or three-syllable word.
  251. How can a teacher make syllable awareness activities easier?
    If the pronunciation of the syllable is distorted and they are uttered slowly and distinctly
  252. Word blending:
    Child is challenged to take two-syllable words and combine them to make a compound word
  253. How can word blending be taught?
    • 1. Pictures can be used
    • 2. The teacher would say, "This is a picture of a cow and this is a picture of a boy. What do you get when you put cow and boy together? The child should, say cowboy. The teacher would then display a third picture, one of a cowboy.
  254. Syllable blending:
    Children are required to blend two syllables into a word.
  255. Describe a lesson for syllable blending.
    The teacher would say, "What word do we get if we put sis and ter together.  The children, we hope, will say sister.
  256. Onset and Rime Blending:
    The teacher would say the onset, such as /b/ and the rime, ank.  The children have to put them together and say bank
  257. Phonemic aware should be taught how?
  258. What should take place before instruction in phonemic awareness?
    1. Instructional activities focusing on the phonological awareness of larger units of language, such as words and syllables
  259. The teacher should focus on how many phonemic awareness tasks at a time?
    It is better to focus on one or two phonemic awareness tasks at a time rather then working on several of them simultaneously
  260. When teaching phonemic awareness, what activities can the teacher plan to help children see the relationship between phonemic awareness and reading?
    It is a good idea to plan some phonemic awareness activities that involve the use of the letter of the alphbet
  261. Phonemic awareness instruction should be long  or brief? Roughly how long for any one lesson?
    It should be brief and not exceed 30 mins per lesson
  262. Direct teaching of phonemic awareness consists of lessons focusing on one of the 6 tasks: What are the 6 tasks?
    • 1. sound isolation
    • 2. sound identity
    • 3. sound blending
    • 4. sound substitution
    • 5. sound deletion
    • 6. sound segmentation
  263. Sound isolation
    The children are given a word and asked to tell which sound occurs at the beginning, middle, or end of the word.
  264. Describe activity for sound isolation
    • 1. Teacher could have a list of words that all have long vowels in the medial position: cake, day, late, leap, feel, vote, coal, bite, like.
    • 2. To model the desire response, Teacher would at the beginning of lesson say each word & then say the medial sound ("leap. the middle sound is /e/").
    • 3. At this point the teacher just says the word and student just say the medial sounds.
  265. It is best to ask the students to give the sound that occurs beginning, medial, or end first? Tell the order in which the lesson should start.
    • It is best to start with beginning sounds
    • Then got to ending sounds
    • Finally, the medial sounds
  266. Sound Identity
    The teacher will need sets of words that all share the same beginning, middle, or ending sound, but have no other shared sounds.
  267. Give an example of sound identity
    • Make sure to have words that share the same beginning, middle, or ending.
    • E.g. lake, light, low. 
    • These words share only one sound, the beginning /l/
  268. Describe how the teacher would teach sound identity
    • 1. First the words have to share the same sound in the beginning, middle, or end
    • 2. The teacher says each of the words (in this case 3 words)- lake, light, low
    • 3. Then asks, "What sound is the same in each of these words?
  269. Sound blending
    The teacher says the sounds with only brief pauses in between each sound. The children then guess the word.
  270. Describe a sound blending lesson
    • 1. Teacher says the sounds with only brief pauses in between each sound
    • 2. Then the children guess the word
    • 3. Teacher says,"Which word am I thinking of? It sounds are /b/, /a/, and /t/. The answer would be bat
  271. Sound substitution
    This type of activity, the teacher asks children to substitute one sound for another
  272. What are the best phrases that work for teaching sound substitution?
    one-word substitutions
  273. Describe the activity for sound substitution
    • 1. The teacher says, "Cat, cat, cat.
    • 2. Then says, Let's substitute the /b/ sound for the /k/ sound.
    • 3. We get bat, bat, bat
  274. After the sound substitution activity of substitution the /k/ sound with /b/ sound, what alliterations can the teacher make?
    All start wit the same consonant sounds

    E.g. be, bo, ba, bu, bi
  275. In sound substitution activity the teacher says, "be, bo, ba, bu, bi", the students would then chant "be, bo, ba, bu, bi". What would the the teacher do next?
    • Ask students to substitute /k/ for the /b/.  
    • The students would then chant, "ke, ko, ka, ku, ki"
  276. Sound Deletion works best with what?
    Consonant blends
  277. Sound deletion avoid nonsense words? How would you avoid nonsense words?
    Identify words beginning with blends that will generate a new word if one sound i deleted

    E.g. Block, take away the b to get lock
  278. Model the sound deletion activity
    Teacher says, "Snail, let's take away the s, and what do we have?' The children should say, "nail."
  279. Sound segmentation is the most what?
    Difficult of the phonemic awareness tasks
  280. To teach the isolation and identification of sounds in a spoken word this should be taught what?
  281. When teaching sound segmentation the teacher should start with words with how many sounds?
    only two sound
  282. The teacher should always model the desired student ?
  283. Model sound segmentation activity
    • Teach would say, "I am going to say a word and then slowly say the sound in the word. Bee. (pause) /b/ (pause) /e/.
    • Then teacher asks students to say the sounds in two-sound words. 
  284. After children have shown they can segment two-sound words, then lesson should focus on words with how many sounds?
    3 sounds
  285. How does words with three sounds challenge children in sound segmentation?
    The lesson challenges children to segment words with minimal differences, such as cap, cat, and cab.
  286. If a child is having difficulty with the sound segmentation task, what can the teacher do?
    The teacher may want to simplify the challenge by merely asking how many sounds are in a word the teacher pronounces (for dog, the answer would be three)
  287. What is to be phonemic awareness?
    aware of the sounds in a words
  288. What is phonics?
    Knowing which letters represent which sounds
  289. The development of of phonemic awareness is a prerequisite to what?
    teaching phonics
  290. Phonemic awareness lessons will take place at the same time as what?
    phonic lessons that teach the alphabetic principle
  291. What are the four strategies a teacher can use to differentiate instruction for struggling readers?
    • 1. Focusing on key skills, especially blending and segmenting
    • 2. Reteaching skills that are lacking
    • 3. Using a variety of concrete examples to explain a concept or task
    • 4. Providing additional practice
  292. Focusing no key skills, especially blending and segmenting:

    Should a teacher consider a student phonemically aware if he/she is successful on the simpler tasks? 
  293. A student who is successful on sound identity and isolation Only, is phonemically aware?
  294. How should a teacher teach by focusing on key skills such as blending and segmenting to struggling students (struggling students, students with reading difficulties or disabilities)?
    Simply put the focus of the small-group and individualized remediation lessons should be on blending and segmenting sounds. 
  295. When reteaching skills that are lacking what changes should the teacher consider for the lessons?
    • 1. Changing the pace of the lesson (go slower)
    • 2. Changing the mode of delivery (provide more modeling or using clues such as clapping or finger snaps)
    • 3. Making the task simpler by providing additional scaffolding
    • 4. Using different material
  296. Model how you can differentiate word blending for a struggling reader. (Recall the CowBoy e.g.)
    • 1. Have a picture of a cow & boy
    • 2. Show the picture of cow & boy 
    • 3. Teacher would say,"This is a picture of a cow and this is a picture of a boy. What do you get when you put cow and boy together? We get cow...?
    • Hopefully, the boy will say cowboy
    • 4. Have the student do the task on his own
    • 5. Teacher would show picture and ask student to blend them into cowboy
  297. In using a variety of concrete examples to explain a concept or task, what are things the teacher can use to help the student?
    pictures or real objects
  298. Giving the student to practice a skill will result in what?
    the student learning the skill
  299. What are phonemes called nontransfreable?
    Phonemes that do not exist in an EL's first language
  300. What English blends do appear in Spanish?
    sc, sk, sm, sn, sp, st,
  301. In helping ELs learn phonemic awareness and phonic skills the teacher would have to devote more time with what?
    Hear the two sounds in each of the initial consonant sounds in blends that do not appear in Spanish.
  302. What are transfer phonemes from English to Spanish?
    /b/, /d/, /m/, /p/, /t/
  303. What are two ways to help advance learners?
    • 1. increase the pace of instruction
    • 2. building on and extending current skills
  304. What is auditory discrimination?
    Test of phonological awareness, including phonemic awareness, the teacher talks and the student listens and then the student says something.  No print is involved
  305. What is one widely used test for phonemic awareness?
    Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation
  306. What is the Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation like?
    • 1. Teacher says 22 words (dog, keep, fine, no)
    • 2. The word must provide each sound of the word in order
    • 3. E.g. When teacher says dog- the correct response from student is /d/, /o/, /g/.
  307. What word and syllable level phonological awareness tasks should the teacher assess?
    word awareness, syllable awareness, word blend, syllable blending, onset-rime blending
  308. To do a complete job of assessing phoneme awareness, teachers should perform which tasks with students?
    sound identity, sound isolation, syllable blending, sound deletion, sound segmentation, and sound substitution
  309. How can the teacher assess sound isolation?
    • 1. 3 tasks
    •    a) identifying sound in the beginning
    •    b) " " medial
    •    c) " " end
  310. How would the teacher assess medial vowel sounds in sound isolation?
    • 1. Create a list of 15-20 words with different medial sounds (bet, feet, cat, take, etc)
    • 2. For each word the teacher would say, "Listen to me say this word, feet, feet, feet. What is the middle sound in feet?"
  311. The assessment of phonological awareness, including phonemic awareness, should include what?
    • 1. Entry-level assessment
    • 2. Progressing-Monitoring Assessment
    • 3. Summative Assessment
  312. In Progressing-Monitoring Assessment for phonological & phonemic awareness, what are the two important decisions the teacher will make of the results?
    • 1. Which individual students need more help
    • 2. At the class level, is it time to stop and reteach the entire class something?
  313. What does Concepts of Print include?
    Basic principles about How letters, words, and sentences are represented in written language. 
  314. To learn how to read children must acquire what concepts about print?
    The basic principles about how letters, sounds, and sentences are represented in written language.
  315. By what time should children have learned the Concept about print?
    By the time children leave Kindergarten
  316. The RICA Content Specifications identify the following concepts about print:
    • 1. An awareness of the relationship between spoken and written language and an understanding that print carries meaning
    • 2. Letter, word, and sentence representation
    • 3. The directionality of print and the ability to track print in connected text
    • 4. Book-handling skills 
  317. What is Letter recognition?
    The ability to identify both the uppercase and lowercase letters when a teacher says the name of the letter ("Point to the big A")
  318. What is letter naming?
    The ability to say the name of the letter when the teacher points to it.  
  319. What is Letter formation also called letter production?
    The ability to write the uppercase and lowercase letters legibly.
  320. When the teacher is performing the letter recognition and letter naming task, what is she teaching?
    Teaching the names of the letters
  321. What is the alphabetic principle?
    In English speech sounds are represented by letters
  322. Concept about Print: Their role in early reading development and instructional strategies:

    What are the concepts about print?
    • 1. The relationship between spoken and written language and that print has meaning
    • 2. Recognizing letter, word, and sentence representations
    • 3. Directionality of print/tracking of print
    • 4. Book-handling skills
  323. Concept about Print: Their role in early reading development and instructional strategies:

    What is the most important concept of the Concept about Print? Explain
    The relationship between spoken & written language and that it has a meaning.

    Children should be aware that printed words are "talk written down"
  324. Concept about Print: Their role in early reading development and instructional strategies:

    Children also need to know that words are used to do what?
    Words are used to transmit messages as in the stories in picture books, product names, etc.
  325. In Concept about Print, what is recognizing letters, words, & sentences representation? 
    The knowledge of the differences between letters, words, & sentences
  326. How can children acquire the skill of recognizing letters, words, and sentences?
    The must know how many letters are in a word
  327. A child who knows how many letters are in a word, has acquired what concept aside from recognizing letters, words, & sentence representation?
    word boundaries
  328. Word boundaries
    how many words there are in a line of text
  329. What do children need to know about sentences?
    Where they begin and end, which requires recognization of end punctuation (.,!,?)
  330. Children who have acquired the concept of directionality of print/tracking of print should do what?
    Understand they must perform a return sweep at the end of each line of text moving from the far right of one line to the far left of the next one.
  331. The teacher can check if a student knows the concept of directionality of print/tracking of print by asking the student what?
    Which word comes next
  332. Book-handling skills
    • 1.Knowing how to hold a book when reading
    • 2. where the front cover of a book is
    • 3. where the title page is
    • 4. where the story starts
    • 5. when and how to turn the pages
    • 6. the location of the back cover of a book
  333. How to teach the Concept About Print?
    • 1. Reading aloud to students
    • 2. The shared book experience
    • 3. Language experience approach (LEA)
    • 4. Environmental print
    • 5. Print-Rich Environment
    • 6. Explicit (direct) teaching of Concepts About Print
  334. How does reading aloud to students help teach Concepts About Print? How should the book look?
    • 1. Teaches that print has meaning
    • 2. The book should be large
    • 3. Kids should be able to follow along word for word
    • 4. It teaches directionality or sentence, word, and letter representation
  335. What is the goal of shared book experience?
    • 1. Are to discover good books
    • 2. To see that reading books is fun
    • 3. To teach concepts about print
  336. Big book - Predictable books are ideal for?
    share experience 
  337. What components do share book experiences usually have?
    • 1. Introduction (prereading)- Look at cover, point out features of the book- author's name, illustrator's name, title page. THEN ask, "What do you think this book will be about?"
    • 2. Teacher reads book. Teacher might pause to encourage predictions/comments, Can stress directionality/track of print by point to every word as he/she reads
    • 3. Discussion occurs before, during, or after text reading. Kids asks questions/talks about favorite parts.
    • 4. The story is reread on subsequent days with the whole group, smaller groups, student pairs/individual students-acting out enjoying the language patterns
  338. What is the LEA intended to do?
    Develop and support children's reading and writing abilities
  339. What is LEA? What are duties of the adult & child?
    • Language Experience Approach
    • Child share an experience such as a field trip to zoo
    • Adult records it.
    • Then, together they read the dictated text. Text is saved/bounded in child's personal reading book
  340. What makes LEA such a great way to teach Concepts about Print?
    • 1. Repeated experiences will help children acquire the big idea- that print carries meaning
    • 2. Teacher can have children follow along with their fingers as they read aloud (Teaches directionality/tracking of print)
    • 3. Good way to teach sentence, word, and letter representation (student identifies sentences, words, letters)
  341. What is environmental print? How does it teach concept about print?
    messages that people encounter in ordinary, daily living: mild cartoons, bumper stickers, candy wrapper, etc.

    Letters, words, phrases, and sentences
  342. How can teacher teach concept about print print with environmental print?
    • 1. Teacher can display the items on bulletin boards/ learning centers
    • 2. Lesson about letters, words, phrases, sentences that appear on items
  343. Print-rich environments:
    • Plenty of written language on display:
    • Labels/captions: classroom items labled
    • Morning message: (Daily schedule w/dates, etc) written chart paper, large letters
    • mailboxes: notes to write to classmates
  344. What does rich-print environments teach?
    directionality; letter, words become print, sentences, and print carries meaning
  345. How important is letter recognition in reading development?
    Research shows that accurate and rapid letter recognition is a essential component in learning to read.
  346. How to teach letter recognition?
    • 1. Letter naming
    • 2. letter formation
  347. How can the teacher teach children to recognize, name and form the uppercase and lowercase letters in English?
    • Through multisensory methods:
    • 1. some activities are primarily visual
    • 2. Others tap auditory
    • 3. tactile
    • 4. Kinesthetic modes of learning
  348. How to associate names and things with letters?
    • Activity: Teacher can write the letter J on the board and ask all the students with names beginning with J to stand underneath J. 
    • Activity:  26 shoes boxes labeled with a different letter of the alphabet.  Students are to place an object in appropriate box,depending on the letter of the alphabet the object begins with.
  349. When teaching the letters of the alphabet through singing the alphabet, how should the teacher do it?
    The song needs to be sung slowly while someone points each letter (good auditory experience)
  350. ABC books are good instructional strategies to teach what?
    Letter recognition:
  351. What instructional strategies are used to teach letter recognition?
    • 1. associating names and things with letters
    • 2. singing the alphabet
    • 3. ABC books
    • 4. Practice writing both uppercase and lowercase letters and writing words
    • 5. Tactile and kinesthetic methods
  352. Writing both uppercase & lowercase is an instructional strategy that helps students learn what?
    The names of letters as they write
  353. 5 years have not developed good fine motor skills.  Therefore, as they learn to form letters, they will want to do what?  
    write words
  354. Children such as kindergartners are learning to write letters, what should the teacher do? What will the results of these children writing letters produce?
    Teacher should encourage children to write words with the letters even if the results is inaccurate spelling
  355. What does tactile refer to?
  356. Tactile lessons include what when teaching children to write, recognize, and name letters?
    Children can make 3-dimensional letters out of modeling clay or trace their fingers over letters cut out of sandpaper
  357. What is kinesthetic?
    Refers to motion
  358. What does a kinesthetic lesson include when teaching children to recognize, form letters, and name letters?
    Ask children to make exaggerated movements with their hands and arms, as they pretend to write letters that are 2 feet in height in the air
  359. What are visually similar letters?
    m and n are visually similar
  360. There is a general principle governing the order in which you teach children to recognize, name, and form letters.  What is it?
    1st- teach EITHER the lowercase or all the uppercase letters first; DON'T teach both at the same time.

    2nd- Teach one letter at a time & each time you teach a new letter, review the ones that have been learned previously
  361. When children are learning to recognize, name, and form letters the biggest challenge is what?
    Is learning to recognize, name, and form letters that are visually and auditor similar, or both.
  362. What are 2 letters that are visually similar, auditory similar, and both?
    • Visually similar: m and n
    • Auditory similar: p and d
    • Both: b and d
  363. How can the teacher address the challenge of teaching children to recognize, name, and form letters that are visually, auditory, or both to children?
    Some teachers teach letters that are similar one after the other, rather then teaching in alphabetically order. 
  364. What is the KEY in teaching children to recognize, name, and form letters that are visually, auditory, or both?
    That children learn to recognize, name, and form the b before they go on to the d. 
  365. What is an instructional strategy teachers use to teach children to recognize, name, and form letters that are visually similar?
    For letters such as m and n or b and d, many teachers help students distinguish the two letters by asking them to trace the letters with their fingers, focusing on the different direction or different movements the fingers take for each letter.
  366. What does phonemic activities teach children?
    Teach children to hear and manipulate those sounds
  367. What does phonemic instruction teach children?
    Teaches children letter-sound correspondences and how to apply that knowledge to sound out words and blend sounds.
  368. What are graphemes and phoneme?
    • Graphemes: letters
    • Phonemes: sounds
  369. When a child tries to sound out a word this shows what?
    The child understands the alphabetic principle:  sounds are represented by letters.
  370. Instruction in what reinforces the alphabetic principle?
    Instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, spelling
  371. When children write what will be reinforced?
    alphabetic principle and letter-sound correspondence
  372. Phonic activities alone cannot fully develop a child's knowledge of letter-sound correspondence, children must also do what?
  373. What is phonetic spelling or temporary spelling or invented spelling?
    Young children write, their spelling reflect their still-developing knowledge of English letter-sound correspondences. (child writes but doesnt know the accurate spelling).
  374. Give examples of invented, temporary, or phonetic spelling?
    • 1. Some sounds may not have any letters at all such as lum for lump
    • 2. Others sounds in words will be represented by the wrong letters such as bote for boat
  375. Why should teachers encourage students who are the phonetic, temporary, or invented spelling to continue?
    • 1. Overemphasis on correctness will stop children dead in their tracks
    • They will write very little and this is not good-they need the challenge in figuring out how words are spelled
    • 2. Phonetic spelling provides important assessment data on a child's knowledge of letter-sound correspondence
  376. What does the RICA content Specifications recommend for differentiated instruction to help struggling readers, students with learning difficulties or disabilities?
    • 1. focus on key concepts & skills
    • 2. Reteaching concepts, skills, letters, and skills that are lacking
    • 3. Using a variety of concrete examples to explain a concept or task
    • 4. providing extra practice
    • 5. using visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile techniques.
  377. In regards to the concept about print what difficulties do struggling readers or students with reading difficulties or disabilities have?
    They have difficulties with the concept of directionality/tracking of print & the difference between letters and words.
  378. When reteaching the concept of directionality how should the teacher reteach this concept?
    • 1. Involve one-to-one intervention
    • 2. Strong kinesthetic element
  379. Describe the one-to-one intervention lesson by the teacher to a student who is being retaught directionality?
    • 1. The student should guide the teachers fingers as he/she reads from left to right & makes the return sweep
    • 2. The child needs to point to the next word as the teacher reads (the teacher moving the child's finger if necessary)
  380. To get struggling readers or students with reading difficulties or disabilities to learn the different between letters and words what sort of differentiated instruction should be used? Explain
    • Many require concrete examples.
    • Many children understand the difference between words & letters by simply looking at a page of book and counting the number of words on a line and number of letters in a word when asked to do so by the teacher.
  381. Struggling readers may need to use another resource to learn the difference between letters and words. What is it? Explain
    • Letter tiles:
    • Teacher would give student a tile with the letter c, a, t. Student would be asked to pull apart and then together the tiles to form cat.  (this is blending sounds)
  382. The RICA content Specification recommends teachers help ELLs and Speakers of Nonstandard English to:
    • 1. Capitalize on the transfer of relevant knowledge and skills from their primary language
    • 2. Recognize that not all languages are alphabetic and that key features of alphabets vary, depending on the first language.
  383. What are the 2 ways the RICA Content Specification suggests to differentiate instruction for Advance learners?
    • 1. increasing the pace of instruction
    • 2. building on and extending current knowledge and skills
  384. Who developed the test called Concepts About Print test?  It was popular but now what are teachers using more?
    • Marie Clay from New Zealand
    • basal reading system districts are providing that are called Houghton Mifflin or Open Court
  385. How is Clay's Concept about Print test administered?
    • 1. Teachers uses on of two special books, Sand or Stones (book has some pages with print upside down, some words with the letters reversed, some lines of print in odd configuration)
    • 2. Teacher asks student to point to the front of page, identify where a student should start to read in the book, etc
  386. What does Clay's Concepts About Print measure?
    • 1. book orientation
    • 2. directionality
    • 3. beginning and ending of a story
    • 4. word sequence
    • 5. Recognition of punctuation & capital letters
  387. Informal assessment by the teacher can easily be done in the classroom how?
    • 1. Any picture book with 3-4 lines of text displayed in conventional form on most pages
    • 2. Paper and pencil. The teacher asks students to perform tasks and keeps records of the results.
  388. How would the teacher informally teach directionality/tracking of print, word boundaries?
    • Directionality/tracking of print:  Ask student where you should begin reading. Student should point to the first word on the first line of the text.
    • Word boundary: Cover all the text except one line of text & ask students how many words are on that line
  389. How can a teacher informally assess a child's understanding that print carries meaning?
    Ask the child to write something. If the child begins to write such as a letter then he/she understand.  But if she/he squiggle/illlustrations then he/she doesn't understand.
  390. When doing an informal assessment of the Concept about print through observation, what must the teacher use?
    A checklist usually provided by their districts.
  391. How can a teacher assess letter recognition & letter naming?
    • Teacher will ask student where is letter s, the student should be able to point to the letter s on a list of all 26 letters. 
    • To assess letter naming the teacher will point to the letter s and the student will say the letter.  
  392. In assessing letter formation two sources of data are needed. What are they?
    • 1. The teacher should assess the student's ability to write the letters in isolation.
    • E.g. teacher calls out he letter & student writes  it.
    • 2. The real test is whether the child can form each letter legibly
  393. In an encoding in context task what is the teacher/student doing?
    • Teacher asks students to write a letter
    • Teacher uses student's writing work to judge the ability to produce each letter
  394. How to assess the alphabetic principle?
    It can be done through observation while the child read aloud & write. If the child tries to sound out words-if they struggle with finding the right sound for a letter-then they have mastered the alphabetic principle.
  395. Identify where entry-level, monitoring of progress, and summative assessment fall.  Informal or formal assessment.
    • Entry-level: formal
    • Summative assessment: formal
    • monitoring of progress: informal (observations)
  396. For entry-level assessment when should kindergarten & 1st grade teachers use this test? How should the test be administered? 
    • Do a formal assessment of each student early in the school year.
    • One-to-one- commercially based test (Houghton Mifflin/Open Court), or the teacher developed format (using a picture book, paper, and Pencil)
  397. Summative format should be administered how?
    • one-to-one
    • cover all the concepts about print/letter recognition, letter naming, letter formation
  398. Word identifcation
    The ability to read aloud, or decode, words correctly
  399. What is meant by having word identification and word recgnition?
    • Word identification means you can pronounce a word 
    • Word recognition is making a connection between the word being pronounced and its meaning
  400. When children acquire efficient word identification skills, they can read with what? Explain
    automaticity: Children don't get bogged down with decoding words, they can focus their attention on understanding what they have read.
  401. Name two word identification strategies children use to identify words?
    Phonics and Sight words
  402. What is ponics?
    The ability to make the correct association between the sounds and the symbols of a language.  
  403. Give an example of of the set of many skills of phonics.
    the knowledge that the letter c makes both the /k/ sound (cake) and the /s/ sound (city).
  404. What are Sight words?
    Words that children should be taught to identify as whole units without breaking the word down by phonics or morphology
  405. What are the 4 type of words that should be taught as sight words?
    • 1. High-frequency words that appear most frequently in the printed texts children read (as, the, of)
    • 2. Words with irregular spellings, such as dove/great
    • 3. Words that children want to know, usually because they use them in their writing (dinosaur, Burger King)
    • 4. Words that are introduced in content-area lesson in social studies & science (insect/butterfly)
  406. Morphology
    To a linguist, is the study of word formation
  407. When do children us morphological clues to identify words?
    When they rely on root words, prefixes, and suffixes
  408. What is Structural analysis?
    The process of recognizing words by analyzing prefixes, suffixes, and base words
  409. What is Syllabic analysis?
    The process of recognizing words by analyzing the syllables in a word.  
  410. What are Context Clues?
    Figuring out the meaning of unknown word by knowing the meaning of the words surrounding the unknown word.
  411. The role of phonics & sight words in word identification:
    knowledge of phonic and sight words facilitates swift and accurate word identification, which is a prerequisite for word recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension
  412. How word identification contributes to word recognition:
    When children learn to identify in print words that exist in their oral vocabulary, they increase the number of word that they "recognize," that is, that they know the meaning. 
  413. What is the process of associating the correct printed form to a known word? Why is this good?
    • When children learn to identify in print words that exist in their oral vocabulary.
    • This is good because it increases the number of words that they recognize & know the meaning of.
  414. How automaticity in word recognition leads to fluency and comprehension:

    What is the goal for all students for word recognition and word identification?
    To achieve automaticity
  415. Automaticity
    Automaticity is that ability to do things without having to think about them at a conscious level
  416. How do you know when a child has achieved automaticity?
    When his or her word identification is swift and accurate.  
  417. Automaticity is essential for what?
    fluent reading, that is, reading at an appropriate pace with appropriate expression
  418. Fluent reading is essential for what?
    Reading comprehension
  419. What do slow, struggling readers often do what?
    lose track of the meaning of what they are reading.
  420. The sequence of phonics and sight word instruction:
    Start with the simplest linguistic units (consonant sounds) and progress to more complex linguistic units (irregular words)
  421. What the types of consonant sounds?
    • 1. continuous sounds
    • 2. stop sounds
  422. Type of consonant sound:

    Continuous sound
    sounds made by the letters f, l, m, n, r, s, v, and z
  423. Type of consonant sound:

    Stop sounds
    b, c, d, g, j, k, p, qu, and t
  424. Common, Regular Letter Combinations 

    1. Consonant Digraphs
    Two-letter combinations that make one sound 

    E.g. ph in phone, sh in share, ph in diagraph
  425. Common, Regular Letter Combinations:

    Consonant Blends:
    Blends are two- or three-letter combinations, said rapidly and each letter in a blend make a sound

    E.g. pl in play, spr in spring, bl in blend
  426. Common, Regular Letter Combination:

    Vowel Digraphs:
    Two-vowel combinations that make a single sound

    E.g. oa, boat makes the long o sound, the ea in teach makes the long e sound
  427. Diphthongs
    1. Glided sounds made by such vowel combination as oi in oil and oy in boy.
  428. R-Controlled vowels
    • 1. Are neither long or short
    • 2. E.g. as in the sounds a makes in car, e makes her, i makes in girl, u makes in hurt, and o makes in for
  429. L-Controlled vowels
    • 1. Are neither long or short 
    • 2. E.g. as in the sound a makes in chalk, e makes in help, i makes in milk, o makes in cold, and u makes in bull
  430. Common, Inflected Morphological Units Taught as Part of Phonics Instruction:

    What do Morphological Units include?
    • 1. prefixes (inter- or intra-)
    • 2. suffixes (-est or -ment)
    • 3. Words without prefixes/suffixes (pizza or elephant)
  431. What are inflected morphological units?
  432. Do inflected morphological units change the part of speech of the root word? Prove Explanation.
    • No
    • E.g. walk and walked are both verbs, big and bigger are both adjectives
  433. What are frequently used inflected morphological units?
    -ed, -er, -est, -ing, and -s
  434. How should Inflected Morphological units be tuaght?
    Children should be taught how to pronoun -er and -est and understand how they chag the meaning of the root words they are attached to.
  435. Common Word Patterns of Increasing Difficulty:

    Name all 6
    • 1. VC
    • 2. CVC
    • 3.CVCC
    • 4. CCVC
    • 5. CVVC
    • 6. CVCE
  436. VC
    • 1. Vowel Consonant- vowel sound is short as in am, it, and up
    • 2. There are Exceptions- words with "irregular" spelling
    • 3. E.g. the word   to  has an "irregular" spelling & is an exception to the VC pattern because the o does not make the short o sound 
  437. CVC
    1. The medial (in the middle) vowel is short as in man, pet, lip, tot, and bum.
  438. CVCC
    • 1. Words in this patter include balk, cost, and film
    • 2. The vowel is short
    • 3. End with a consonant blend
  439. CCVC
    • 1. Start with consonant blend (brat, clap, or skip)
    • 2. The vowel is short
  440. CVVC
    1. Many but not all words in this pattern have vowel digraphs  (two-vowels, one sound): bait, team, goat
  441. CVCE
    • 1. The vowel sound in this pattern makes a long sound as in made, like, come, and buge
    • 2. Beware of those irregular exceptions, love and live 
  442. What are the 6 rules for dividing words into syllables?
    • 1. Compound words, divide between the words: in-side, foot-ball
    • 2. Single-syllable prefix, divide between the prefix and the root: un-kind, pre-test
    • 3. Never divide a consonant digraph: bush-el, teach-er
    • 4. Two consonants in the middle of a word that are not digraphs, divide between the consonants: sis-ter, but-ter
    • 5. Single consonant in the middle of a word between two vowels, the vowel preceding the consonant is short, divide after the consonant : cab-in, lev-el
    • 6. Single consonant int the middle of a word between tow vowels, the vowel preceding the consonant is long, divide before the consonant: be-long, fe-ver
  443. Why some words are phonetically irregular and never decodable:
    • 1. Does not follow the decoding generalization-Irregular words of, the, was
    • 2. Etymology (word origins)-they reflect the spelling of another language
  444. How and When Irregular words fit into the Continuum of Phonics Instruction:

    Words that appear phonically irregular are taught how? (for students to read)
    They are taught as sight words in kindergarten, 1st grade, and 2nd grade
  445. What are sight words? How they taught?
    • Words that are taught as a whole "unite"-
    • They are taught as whole unites so that children do need to decode them
  446. What is the Fry New Instant Word List?
    • 1. The 300 words most frequently used words in English
    • The is #1
    • of is # 2
    • was is #12
  447. Many of the irregular, high-frequency words are neither what?
    1. Nouns, verbs, adjectives
  448. Why are many irregular, high-frequency words?
    function words with no clear meaning: propositions, pronouns, or conjunctions (of, the, was)
  449. What words taught as sight words are particular hard for children to remember?
    the, of, was
  450. Why are some decodable words taught as sight words util their phonetic pattern can be taught? 
    • 1. They are high-frequency words children need to know early on
    • 2. Some sound-symbol relationship in the word will not be taught until much later
  451. Give an example of decodable words that should be taught as sight words first before a children will learn to through phonetics how to decode it?
    • Park
    • 1. Many children will want to use in their writing
    • 2. The R-controlled a in park may not be taught until 2nd grade

    • Each 
    • 1. EA vowel digraph is not among the first sound-symbol relationships taught to children
    • 2. Its a high frequency word it must be taught as a sight word late in Kindergarten or early in 1st grade
  452. What are the 5 stages of spelling development?
    • 1. Precommunicative
    • 2. Semiphonetic
    • 3. Phonetic
    • 4. Transitional
    • 5. Conventional
  453. It is important to know a child's spelling development? Why?
    Yes, because it will tell you what type of instruction the child needs
  454. What is Precommunicative spelling?
    • 1. No understanding that letters represent sounds.
    • 2. Rather than letters, the child "writes" by drawing pictures or making squiggles
    • 3. If letters appear they are randomly assigned
    • 4. NO understanding of the alphabetic principle
    • E.g. Child wrote: aaLLo Shav to represent - My Dad's new car.
  455. What is Semiphonetic spelling?
    • 1. Children attempt to use letterto represent sounds
    • 2. The child's knowledge of sound-symbol relationships, is poorly developed
    • 3. Children at this level don't understand that at least one letter for each sound in a word; that is some sounds in words are not represented
    • E.g banana is spelled baa