Geog 120: Short answers

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  1. Open access
    • -free-for-all
    • -no one has the legal right to exclude anyone the right to use a resource
    • -No rules, no one is in charge & take anything you want
    • -ex) air, water
  2. Customary use
    • -rights not based on law, but rather on a society’s customs and history
    • -the freedom of the waterways and the right to use them 
    • -many are recreation in nature
    • -usually associated with traditional societies 
    • -Ex. Maypole dancing: 18th century dance
  3. The taking of public space
    • -Public space: stage on which groups can debate alternate views on policy and principle
    • -taking it away means lack of ideas and culture spread
    • -teachs us how to behave and norms
    • -Ex. People's Park Berkeley
    • -used by students for speeches
    • -1960s-70s
    • -riots, teargas, wanted it to be parking lot
    • -made it a garden
  4. Story of the herdsman
    • - herdsmen live and share a pasture
    • - each herdsman wants to maximize own herd by adding more cattle
    • - if one herdsman adds more cattle, they all want to
    • - lose commons as they add cattle, affecting them all
    • - natural resources are depleted, leads to ruin
  5. Boundless goods
    • -goods that are not worth the effort to create a system of resource
    • -can't make them property because they are so open to the public at large
    • -Ex.air
  6. Free rider problem
    • -free riders" are those who consume more than their fair share of a public resource
    • -they benefit from a resource but do not pay for the cost of providing it
    • -Ex. In a labor union, free riding occurs if an employee pays no union dues or agency shop fees, but benefits from union representation.
    • -makes the others start to under-invest
  7. The organized public
    • -like the government, acts much like a private property owner
    • -government speaks for them
    • -church
  8. The unorganized public
    • -public at large
    • -people acting on their own
    • -does not act through the voice of a single government body
    • -Property is inherently public if the unorganized public governs its use
    • -some rights are held by the unorganized public like surfing and jogging
    • -can organize itself through custom like having dances on public squares
    • -Carol rose
  9. The problem of holdout
    • -defined where an agent, for example a land developer, must negotiate with many lot owners and each lot owner must provide their consent in order for a project to proceed.
    • -Once assembly begins, individual owners, knowing their land is essential to the completion of the project, can hold out for prices in excess of their opportunity costs
    • -can ask for more money, if last to sign
    • -The net effect is that such large-scale projects are underproduced.
  10. Transaction cost
    • -Additional costs of purchasing or selling a good or service beyond its actual price and transportation costs.
    • -Includes identifying buyers and sellers, finding and attracting skilled workers and investors, working our technological specifications and delivery schedules with parts suppliers and customers, learning new technologies and acquiring info and finally, dealing with delays.
    • -The unseen costs of doing business; the costs required for gathering information about, negotiating, and enforcing contracts in the exchange of a product or service.
  11. Possession vis-a-vis consent
    • -possession is linked to consent
    • -Public has to consent to claim of possession and it must be clear in order for them to dispute
    • -Critique of Locke's argument because he doesn't talk about consent, he believes people just have it and hungry take away your rights
  12. The importance of clear titles
    • -facilitate trade
    • -lower transaction costs
    • -the land is not being used efficiently because of unclear titles
    • -must speak to audience
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Geog 120: Short answers
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