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A nucleic acid is a _________ composed of a sequence of __________
3 basic parts of nucleotides
- pentose sugar
- phosphate group
- nitrogenous base
Nitrogenous bases are either _________ or_____________ molecules and because of their bonding capability a ______ can only bond to a ______________
How are Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic chromosomes different?
- Prokaryotic- circular, 1 or2, sometimes plasmid, found in nucleoid
- Eukaryotic- linear, nucleous, 2
What do Chloroplasts, Mitocrondia, and Prokaryotic DNA have in common?
DNA is circular
What is plasma, what is it used for, and how is it different from the main chromosomes?
- Plasma is a smaller circular strand of DNA
- It is used in prokaryotic DNA
- It is replicated independently of the chromosome and does not contain essential info needed to keep the cell alive
Different types of plasmid
- Bacteriocin factors
- Virulence plasmids
- Cryptic plasmids
Difference in code, condon, and anticodon
- Code- three nucleotides in sequence in the DNA nucleotide gene
- Codon- three mRNA nucleotides
- Anticodon- 3 tRNA nucleotides
Difference in Gene, Genome, Chromosome?
- Gene- DNA nucleotide sequence.
- Genome- all the nucleotide sequences
- Chromosome- double stranded DNA associated with proteins and RNA
- Unwinding- DNA helix removes proteins and is unwound
- Splitting- Hydrogen bonds between bases are broken by enzyme helicase
- Pairing- Single complimentary nucleotides are paired with the nucleotides of the two parent strands then bonded to each other using the enzyme DNA polymerase
the point where the DNA has been opened is
What is needed in DNA replication?
energy, precursur metabolites, enzymes
- initiation- a section of DNA molecule is unwound, opened and RNA polymerases bind to promoter nucleotide sequnces at the begining of the sequence to be expressed
- Elongation- the pairing of RNA nucleotides with the DNA template to form the mRNA strand that is the complement of the DNA sequence to be expressed.
- Termination- DNA sequence has been trnascribed to form the mRNA polymer and the RNA is released from the DNA template
What is required in transcription
- RNA nucleotides
- Initiation- the mRNA and the ribosome form a complex. Line up with each other
- Elongation- continuing of line up
- Termination- occurs when a stop codon is reached and release factors that halt elongation
why is genetic expression control needed?
- conserves energy
- resources and limits the storage spaced needed in the cell
what is a mutation
a change in the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA strand
the result of a nucleotide being changed or replaced by another nucleotide and are the most common kind
the result of a nucleotide that has been inserted into the DNA strand (insertion mutation) or the result of a nucleotide being removed (deletion mutation)
- moving nucleotide sequences between two DNA molecules.
- results in
uses viruses to move DNA from one cell to another. infects the new cell
the organism picks up segments of DNA that are loose in its environment. must have competence factors
requires contact between two living cells using conjugation pili. Donor cell replicates its plasmid and transfers it through the pili to the recipiant cell
occurs when any random sequence of nucleotides is picked up by the virus and carried to the donor cell
occurs when only certain sequences from the donor cel are picked up and transfered
a gene or set of genes capable of inserting copies of itself into other DNA sites within the same cell