Micro Chapter 7

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  1. A nucleic acid is a _________ composed of a sequence of __________
    • polymer
    • nucleotides
  2. 3 basic parts of nucleotides
    • pentose sugar
    • phosphate group
    • nitrogenous base
  3. Nitrogenous bases are either _________ or_____________ molecules and because of their bonding capability a ______ can only bond to a ______________
    • purines
    • pyrimidine
    • purine
    • pyrimidine
  4. How are Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic chromosomes different?
    • Prokaryotic- circular, 1 or2, sometimes plasmid, found in nucleoid
    • Eukaryotic- linear, nucleous, 2
  5. What do Chloroplasts, Mitocrondia, and Prokaryotic DNA have in common?
    DNA is circular
  6. What is plasma, what is it used for, and how is it different from the main chromosomes?
    • Plasma is a smaller circular strand of DNA 
    • It is used in prokaryotic DNA 
    • It is replicated independently of the chromosome and does not contain essential info needed to keep the cell alive
  7. Different types of plasmid
    • Fertility
    • Resistance
    • Bacteriocin factors
    • Virulence plasmids
    • Cryptic plasmids
  8. Difference in code, condon, and anticodon
    • Code- three nucleotides in sequence in the DNA nucleotide gene
    • Codon- three mRNA nucleotides
    • Anticodon- 3 tRNA nucleotides
  9. Difference in Gene, Genome, Chromosome?
    • Gene- DNA nucleotide sequence. 
    • Genome- all the nucleotide sequences
    • Chromosome- double stranded DNA associated with proteins and RNA
  10. DNA Replication
    • Unwinding- DNA helix removes proteins and is unwound
    • Splitting- Hydrogen bonds between bases are broken by enzyme helicase 
    • Pairing- Single complimentary nucleotides are paired with the nucleotides of the two parent strands then bonded to each other using the enzyme DNA polymerase
  11. the point where the DNA has been opened is
    replication fork
  12. What is needed in DNA replication?
    energy, precursur metabolites, enzymes
  13. Transcription
    • initiation- a section of DNA molecule is unwound, opened and RNA polymerases bind to promoter nucleotide sequnces at the begining of the sequence to be expressed
    • Elongation- the pairing of RNA nucleotides with the DNA template to form the mRNA strand that is the complement of the DNA sequence to be expressed. 
    • Termination- DNA sequence has been trnascribed to form the mRNA polymer and the RNA is released from the DNA template
  14. What is required in transcription
    • Gene
    • RNA nucleotides
    • Ribosomes
    • Enzymes
  15. Tanslation
    • Initiation- the mRNA and the ribosome form a complex. Line up with each other
    • Elongation- continuing of line up
    • Termination- occurs when a stop codon is reached and release factors that halt elongation
  16. why is genetic expression control needed?
    • conserves energy
    • resources and limits the storage spaced needed in the cell
  17. what is a mutation
    a change in the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA strand
  18. Point mutation
    the result of a nucleotide being changed or replaced by another nucleotide and are the most common kind
  19. Frameshift mutations
    the result of a nucleotide that has been inserted into the DNA strand (insertion mutation) or the result of a nucleotide being removed (deletion mutation)
  20. Genetic Recombination
    • moving nucleotide sequences between two DNA molecules. 
    • results in
  21. Transduction
    uses viruses to move DNA from one cell to another. infects the new cell
  22. Transformation
    the organism picks up segments of DNA that are loose in its environment. must have competence factors
  23. Bacterial conjugation
    requires contact between two living cells using conjugation pili. Donor cell replicates its plasmid and transfers it through the pili to the recipiant cell
  24. Generalized transduction
    occurs when any random sequence of nucleotides is picked up by the virus and carried to the donor cell
  25. specialized transduction
    occurs when only certain sequences from the donor cel are picked up and transfered
  26. jumping gene
    a gene or set of genes capable of inserting copies of itself into other DNA sites within the same cell
Card Set:
Micro Chapter 7
2013-11-06 18:01:49

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