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What are the biological roles of proteins?
- Structure - eg collagen, keratin
- Transport - membrane transporters eg albumin
- Enzymes - catalyse biological reactions
- Motility - eg myosin in muscle
- Immune system - immunoglobulins
- Metabolic regulation - hormones eg insulin, glucagon
There are two forms of amino acids (enantiomers). What are they?
D-amino acids and L-amino acids
Which form of amino acids are incorporated into proteins/polypeptides and why?
L-amino acids as the enzymes that join amino acids together can only incorporate L-amino acids
What are the different types of amino acid side chains?
- Hydrophobic and aliphatic - straight chain hydrocarbons
- Hydrophobic and aromatic - contain a benzene ring
- Hydrophilic and charged - contain charged particles
- Hydrophilic and neutral - overall they have no charge
What is the amino acid found at the beginning of most protein sequences?
What amino acid is important in disulphide bond formation?
Proteins are always formed from the … terminal to the … terminal?
N to the C terminal
What interaction occurs in the 1y structure of proteins?
Peptide bonds between amino acids
What interaction occurs in the 2y structure of proteins?
What are the two types of 2y protein structure?
Alpha helix and beta sheets
What interaction occurs in the 3y structure of proteins?
Side chain (R group) interactions
What are the different types of side chain interactions?
- Hydrogen bonding
- Electrostatic interactions between charged groups
- Hydrophobic interactions
- Van der Waals' forces
- Disulphide bonds
What interaction occurs in the 4y structure of proteins?
Interactions between subunits
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