Neuro Unit 3 Emotional behaviors

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Neuro Unit 3 Emotional behaviors
2013-11-06 16:17:34
neuro emotions

Overview of emotional behaviors
Show Answers:

  1. ____ is a feeling state characterized by physiological arousal, expressive behaviors/responses, and a cognitive interpretation.
  2. Behavioral signs of emotion are controlled by the ____, ____, and ____.
    • somatic motor system (expressive behavior)
    • ANS (and limbic system; physiological process)
    • hypothalamus (cognitive appraisal)
  3. The James-Lange theory of emotion:
    • Experience emotion in response to physiological changes in our body
    • Physiology--> Appraisal

    • Stimulus-->Response-->Emotion
    • *Feedback from changes elicits emotions; Emotions are due to ANS
    • (Happiness comes from smiling, sadness comes from crying)

    "My heart is pounding so I must feel afraid"
  4. Cannon Bard Theory of emotion:
    • An event evokes emotional experience and the physical arousal simultaneously, but independently
    • Emotion originates in the thalamus
    • Appraisal-->Physiology
    • Stimulus-->Thalamus-->Emotion & Response
    • Don't need to cry to feel sad, just need activation of thalamus
    • "I feel afraid, so my heart pounds."
  5. Cognitive reactions can occur without ANS changes, but subjective experiences ___ without some ANS arousal.

    Person can categorize without physiological change (no ANS), but emotions are absent or minimal.

    Pure autonomic failure (PAF) occurs more often in ____. It is a loss of ___ output to the body, causing headaches, fainting, and decrease in sweat. These individuals have emotions, but are very weak and mild.

    Locked-in syndrome occurs when there is damage to the ventral ____. Everything is paralyzed except for the ___. Patient is alert and conscious, but there is loss of output from brain to ____ or ___. Many patients report tranquility.
    • Decrease
    • Males
    • ANS

    • brainstem
    • eyes
    • skeletal muscles, ANS
  6. Purposes of emotions (5)
    • Induce motivation
    • spring us into action
    • more reactive
    • facilitates learning/memory
    • Facilitate performance
  7. The limbic system includes structures on the medial aspects of cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. Two main structures for emotions are ___ and ___.

    This structure is responsible for cognition and emotions through the use of gestures to resolve conflict.

    This structure is responsible for fear and aggression.
    • Cingulate gyrus
    • Amygdala

    • Cingulate gyrus
    • Amygdala
  8. The limbic system is not the only area involved in emotions. Emotional reaction results from interaction between ___, ___, ___, and ___. Structures responsible for emotions may also have other functions.
    • sensory stimuli
    • brain circuitry
    • past experiences
    • NT systems
  9. Asymmetry in emotional processing
    Left vs. Right.
    left: Expression of positive emotion, damage=loss of joy(sadness, depression), activation=friendliness and outgoing

    right: perception of emotion, facial, expression, & prosody, expression of negative emotion, damage=euphroic, mania, activation=withdrawal (less satisfied with life)
  10. The _____ is involved in behavioral and physiological responses associated with fear and anxiety.
  11. Damage to the amygdala lose much of their ____ or ___ and have trouble recognizing ______________.

    Amygdala atrophies because of accumulation of calcium.
    • fear, anxiety; approach people indiscriminately
    • facial expressions of fear
  12. ____ is a behavior that is motivated to cause harm to another living being.

    two types:

    Both types are controlled by the ____ and ___, but pathways eventually diverge.

    predatory, affective

    Somatic motor system, ANS
  13. ___ aggression is NOT associated with high-levels of activity in the sympathetic nervous system. This is an attack against someone else for purpose of food.
  14. ____ aggression IS associated with high-levels in the sympathetic nervous system. This is more for show, in that it uses a threatening posture to scare something away.
  15. Two pathways by which the hypothalamus sends signals involving autonomic function to the brainstem are the _____ and _____.

    The ____ pathway contains the lateral hypothalamus and sends signal to ventral tegmental area(VTA). Stimulation of these areas elicit ____ aggressive behaviors.

    The ____ pathway contains the medial hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray matter (PGA). Stimulation elicits ____ aggressive behavior.

    (VTA) and (PAG) are in the midbrain
    Medial forebrain bundle, dorsal longitudinal fasciculus

    predatory; Medial forebrain bundle

    affective; dorsal longitudinal fasciculus
  16. The amygdala has multiple effects on aggressive behavior via the ____ and other structures.

    Electrical stimulation of part of the amygdala ___ affective aggression.
    Lesions in this same area ____ affective aggression.
    • hypothalamus
    • increases
    • decreases
  17. This neurotransmitter may be involved in regulating aggression.

    Decrease in serotonin=Increase in Aggression