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____ is a feeling state characterized by physiological arousal, expressive behaviors/responses, and a cognitive interpretation.
Behavioral signs of emotion are controlled by the ____, ____, and ____.
- somatic motor system (expressive behavior)
- ANS (and limbic system; physiological process)
- hypothalamus (cognitive appraisal)
The James-Lange theory of emotion:
- Experience emotion in response to physiological changes in our body
- Physiology--> Appraisal
- *Feedback from changes elicits emotions; Emotions are due to ANS
- (Happiness comes from smiling, sadness comes from crying)
"My heart is pounding so I must feel afraid"
Cannon Bard Theory of emotion:
- An event evokes emotional experience and the physical arousal simultaneously, but independently
- Emotion originates in the thalamus
- Stimulus-->Thalamus-->Emotion & Response
- Don't need to cry to feel sad, just need activation of thalamus
- "I feel afraid, so my heart pounds."
Cognitive reactions can occur without ANS changes, but subjective experiences ___ without some ANS arousal.
Person can categorize without physiological change (no ANS), but emotions are absent or minimal.
Pure autonomic failure (PAF) occurs more often in ____. It is a loss of ___ output to the body, causing headaches, fainting, and decrease in sweat. These individuals have emotions, but are very weak and mild.
Locked-in syndrome occurs when there is damage to the ventral ____. Everything is paralyzed except for the ___. Patient is alert and conscious, but there is loss of output from brain to ____ or ___. Many patients report tranquility.
- skeletal muscles, ANS
Purposes of emotions (5)
- Induce motivation
- spring us into action
- more reactive
- facilitates learning/memory
- Facilitate performance
The limbic system includes structures on the medial aspects of cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. Two main structures for emotions are ___ and ___.
This structure is responsible for cognition and emotions through the use of gestures to resolve conflict.
This structure is responsible for fear and aggression.
The limbic system is not the only area involved in emotions. Emotional reaction results from interaction between ___, ___, ___, and ___. Structures responsible for emotions may also have other functions.
- sensory stimuli
- brain circuitry
- past experiences
- NT systems
Asymmetry in emotional processing
Left vs. Right.
left: Expression of positive emotion, damage=loss of joy(sadness, depression), activation=friendliness and outgoing
right: perception of emotion, facial, expression, & prosody, expression of negative emotion, damage=euphroic, mania, activation=withdrawal (less satisfied with life)
The _____ is involved in behavioral and physiological responses associated with fear and anxiety.
Damage to the amygdala lose much of their ____ or ___ and have trouble recognizing ______________.
Amygdala atrophies because of accumulation of calcium.
- fear, anxiety; approach people indiscriminately
- facial expressions of fear
____ is a behavior that is motivated to cause harm to another living being.
Both types are controlled by the ____ and ___, but pathways eventually diverge.
Somatic motor system, ANS
___ aggression is NOT associated with high-levels of activity in the sympathetic nervous system. This is an attack against someone else for purpose of food.
____ aggression IS associated with high-levels in the sympathetic nervous system. This is more for show, in that it uses a threatening posture to scare something away.
Two pathways by which the hypothalamus sends signals involving autonomic function to the brainstem are the _____ and _____.
The ____ pathway contains the lateral hypothalamus and sends signal to ventral tegmental area(VTA). Stimulation of these areas elicit ____ aggressive behaviors.
The ____ pathway contains the medial hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray matter (PGA). Stimulation elicits ____ aggressive behavior.
(VTA) and (PAG) are in the midbrain
Medial forebrain bundle, dorsal longitudinal fasciculus
predatory; Medial forebrain bundle
affective; dorsal longitudinal fasciculus
The amygdala has multiple effects on aggressive behavior via the ____ and other structures.
Electrical stimulation of part of the amygdala ___ affective aggression.
Lesions in this same area ____ affective aggression.
This neurotransmitter may be involved in regulating aggression.
Decrease in serotonin=Increase in Aggression