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____ is the acquisition of new information.
____ is the storage and retrieval of learned information.
Memory is stored via:
- Changes in synaptic connections
___ memory lasts only seconds as long as rehearsal continues. It has a limited memory system.
___ memory holds memories available for ready access during performance of a task.
___ memory is an enduring form of memory that lasts from days to years and has a a very large capacity. It is an unlimited memory system.
Model of Memory Processes
___ is information entering sensory channels that is passed into STM.
____ is converting STM or ITM into LTM.
____ is a process in which a stored memory is used by an organism.
- Memroy consolidation
The ____ is particularly important and has been associated with working memory for (4):
- object identification
- spatial location
- verbal information
- problem solving and planning behavior
Prefrontal syndrome- marked difficulty with working memory
Two forms of long-term memory:
- Procedural/Implicit Nondeclarative
Declarative memory consolidation is formed using these two structures of the brain.
Two types of declarative memory are:
Declarative memories are used for lists of numbers, names, and recollecting prior events.
Memories are formed rapidly and are subject to forgetting.
Medial temporal lobe, diencephalon
Facts and knowledge (semantic) *left hemisphere
Events (episodic) *Right hemisphere; associated with emotions
Non declarative memory is for learned behaviors/habit learning. Consolidation is formed using 3 structures of the brain. The types of memory that go with each structure are:
- Basal ganglia (procedural)
- Cerebellum (skeletal muscles)
- Amygdala (emotional responses)
____ is the pathological loss of declarative memory.
____ amnesia is when one cannot remember events prior to brain damage (forget things you already know)
____ amnesia is when one cannot later remember events that occur after brain damage (may not be able to learn new things)
Both types of amnesia are due to damage to the _____.
Explain the process of memory formation.
Cortical association areas--> (medal temporal lobe) parahippocampal and rhinal cortical areas --> hippocampus --> thalamus, hypothalamus
The Diencephalon and Declarative Memory Formation
What 3 structures are involved?
- Anterior thalamic nuclei
- Dorsomedial thalamic nucleli
- Mammillary bodies (in hypothalamus)
What is Wernicke-Korsakoff's syndrome?
What causes confabulations and poor insight?
- Damage to dorsomedial thalamus and mammillary bodies
- Profound anterograde amnesia
- Lack of awareness, confabulations, and confusion
- Impaired insight & apathy
- Not aware of memory loss, flat emotional affect
- Damage to basal forebrain causes confabulations and poor insight
The striatum and nondeclarative memory formation
What is the striatum?
What is the striatum implicated in and what is the evidence?
What are other structures involved in nondeclarative memory formation?
- Putamen & caudate nucleus of basal ganglia
- Memory of skills and habits; Huntington's and Parkinson's
- Prefrontal, premotor cortex, posterior parietal lobe, cerebellum
What are the stages of Alzheimer's?
- 1: Forgetful, disoriented, careless, mild anterograde amnesia
- 2: Forget recent events, impaired math skills
- 3: no recent memory, past memory impaired, profound anterograde amnesia, can't recognize family members
What language functions are impaired in AD?
What are other characteristics?
- Language is lost completely
- Personality changes and poor judgment, physical health good until later stages
What can be attributed to the cause of AD?
What parts of the brain are affected?
- Linked to genes on specific chromosomes
- Genes lead to accumulation of amyloid deposits which cause growth of neurofibrillary tangles and plaques
- Frontal lobe and hippocampus of temporal lobe
Amyloid deposits cause tangles and plaques. Neurofibrillary tangles are filaments found inside the ___ and occur as the neuron dies. Once the neuron has died, ___ form in extracellular fluid. They deposit beta-amyloid, which is surrounded by degenerating ___ and ___.
What are the areas most damaged in AD?
The ___ ___ provides input to the hippocampus.
- Medial temporal lobe
- Basal forebrain
- Basal forebrain
Long-term potentiation occurs in the ___. It occurs as a result of a long-lasting ___ in the strength of a stimulated synapse. This is important for:
Long-term depression (forgetting) is long-lasting ___ in the strength of a stimulated synapse.
- Learning and memory
A brief high-frequency stimulation, called a ___, to one pathway in the ___ results in a LTP of the response to a single test stimulus. This creates an ___ in EPSP.
LTP occurs in other parts of the brain. There may be a model for a cellular mechanism of short-term learning and memory.
Biochemical Mechanisms of LTP
LTP is mediated by ___ receptors. Normally, the ___ channel is blocked by Mg2+, and only the ___ channel functions. When glutamate binds to the AMPA channel, ___ occurs and kicks Mg2+ out, allowing the NMDA channel to open, allowing __ to enter.
The rapid increase of ___ ions triggers processes that leads to LTP. Activation of protein ___ changes the structure of the post-synatpic membrane, allowing for LTP & an increase in NT release and synaptic reactivity.
- depolarization (Na+ enters)