Health Science Midterm #2
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What is non-communicable disease?
disease/illness cannot be transmitted from an infected person to another
What are some contributing factors to non-communicable disease? (3)
- behavioural in nature
What are some examples of non-communicable disease? (5)
- chronic arthritis
- heat attack
Nearly ___ of NCD deaths occur in low and middle income countries.
What are the top 3 leading cause of death since 2000?
- heart disease
What was the leading cause of death between 1850 and 1900? (2)
What are the 4 behavioural risk factors of NCD?
- -poor diet
- -alcohol use
What are some examples of background risk factors? (4)
- level of education
- genetic composition
What re some examples of intermediate risk factors? (3)
- elevated blood lipids
- high blood pressure
What are some community risk factors and give some examples for each? (4)
- social and economic condition: poverty, employment and family composition
- Environment: climate or air pollution
- Culture: practices, norms and values
- Urbanization: housing, access to products and services
There are approximately __________ smokers in the world, consuming __________ cigarettes annually.
__________ people die from tobacco use each year (direct and second hand smoke)
Second hand smoke increases the risk of? (4)
- cardiovascular disease
- lung cancer
- sudden infant death
- low birth weight babies
Smoking is estimated to cause about __ of lung cancer.
Approximately _________ people die each year due to physical inactivity.
Regular physical activity reduce the risk of? (4)
- high blood pressure
- breast and colon cancer
Approximately ____________ dies each year from the harmful use of alcohol.
Alcohol is the world's __ largest risk factor for disease burden.
How many minutes of physical activities are recommended for Canadian adults?
150 minutes per week
Worldwide, ________ people die each year as a result of being overweight.
Obesity has __________ since 1980.
Obesity is a risk factor for? (4)
- coronary heart disease
- type 2 diabetes
- some cancers
What are the three health strategies for NCD?
- primary prevention
- secondary prevention
- tertiary prevention
What is the goal with primary prevention?
the goal is to protect healthy people from developing a disease or experiencing an injury in the first place
what are some examples of primary prevention? (5)
- education about good nutrition, regular exercise, dangers of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs
- proper seatbelt and helmet use
- regular exams and screening tests to monitor risk factors for illness
- controlling potential hazards at home and in the workplace
When does secondary prevention happen?
after an illness or serious risk factors have already been diagnosed.
What is the goal for secondary prevention?
The goal is to halt or slow the progress of disease (if possible) in its earliest stages
What are the goals in tertiary prevention? (4)
- slow disease progress
- maintain function
- lengthen life
- improve quality of life
What are some methods used tertiary prevention? (3)
- risk factor modification (weight loss)
- reducing harmful exposure
What is screening? (2)
- detects potential disease indicators
- indicates suspicion
What is diagnostic testing?
- detects the presence of a disease
- results in definitive diagnosis
Does early detection mean better outcome?
Define True positive.
The patient has the disease and the test is positive
Ideally, primary prevention will reduce the ______ and _______ of disease
incidence and prevalence
What are some examples of when screening is used? (5)
- breast cancer
- colon cancer
- cervical cancer
- vision and hearing impairment
What is screening the first step to?
first step to diagnosis
Define false positive.
the patient does not have the disease but the test is positive.
Define True negative.
the patient does not have the disease and the is negative
Define False negative.
the patient has the disease but the test is negative
What is sensitivity?
probability that a test correctly classifies people with the disease as having the disease
What is specificity?
the probability that a test correctly classifies people without the disease as not having the disease.
What is positive predicted value?
the probability that someone who tests positive actually has the disease.
What is negative predicted value?
the probability that someone who tests negative actually does not have the disease
In a 95% confidence interval, what can you conclude when 1 is included?
if it includes one, there's not 95% confidence interval
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