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What are study time points?
The number of times data are collected (from the same participants)
What is a study design?
Overall approach used in the study.
What is a study protocol?
Activities and tools used to collect data.
What is Internal Validity?
- The study can be replicated by other scientist (others can redo)
- - More tied to procedures
- - What you see is a function of what you did
What is External Validity?
- - The findings can be generalized to the intended population. (can be applied to another group)
- -Less tied to procedures
What are threats to Internal Validity?
(manipulation of independent variable)
- 1- History
- 2- Maturation
- 3- Selection
- 4- Testing (pretest)
- 5- Instrumentation (scores)
- 6- Regression (away from mean)
- 7- Mortality (drop-outs)
What are threats to External Validity?
- 1- Multiple treatment Interference
- 2- Reactive Arrangements (Hawthorne effect: in that participants know about a research experiment)
- 3- Experimenter Effects
- 4- Pretest sensitization (can tell people what is to come)
How do you increase Internal and External validity?
Interval: Randomly select participants, randomly assign into groups, and use a control group
External: Ensure that researchers do not effect outcome
What are extraneous variables and how can you control them?
Factors that can decrease the internal validity of a study.
- Control by:
- -Ignoring any variable that is unrelated to the dependent variable being measured.
- -Use of randomization that the effects of many different potential sources of variance can be controlled.
Also by Matching
, using homogeneous groups
, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)
What is a time sequence?
Order of occurrence (before, after) (this, that)
What is causality?
Presence of cause and effect.
Ex. Because he gives you a ring (before), you will get married (after).