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  1. what bone does the radial head articulate with
  2. what type of joint is the elbow joint
    what is the considered classification of this joint
    • synovial joint - encased in a sack of fluid
    • ginglymus (hinge)
  3. what joint is considered to be part of the elbow
    what type of joint is it
    • the proximal radial ulnar joint
    • trochoidal
  4. what two bones will always have superimposition of one another with no rotation
    • radius and ulna
    • proximal radius is superimposed by the ulna
  5. what type of rotation views the radial head best
    external rotation of the arm
  6. why type of rotation foreshortens and isolates the coronoid processinto better view
    internal rotation of the elbow
  7. the lateral position of the elbow best views what part of the bone
    olecranon process of the ulna
  8. what are the xposure factors for the elbow
    • same as the wrist
    • 50-70 kv
    • short exposure
    • 40 SID
    • Increase exposure with cast
  9. list all the elbow routine positions
    • AP Lateral
    • Internal OBL 45 degrees
    • External OBL 45 degrees
  10. when taking an AP projection of the elbow what two structures must be parallel to the IR
    the epicondyles
  11. List all the requirements for a AP elbow
    what do we do with the epicondyles
    • 10x12
    • fully extend the elbow and supinate the hand
    • we palpate epicondyles to ensure they are parallel to the IR (patient may need to lean laterally)
    • support hand as need by the palm
    • CR to mid-elbow joint
  12. if the patient cannot fully extend the forearm to do an ap elbow what two positions should we use
    2 ap projections one with forearm to IR (elbow down patient seated) and one with humerus parallel to IR (partially flexed with forearm part elevated on a sponge
  13. what is the purpose of the AP oblique Projection-Lateral (external) rotation
    isolates and views the radial head and neck and capitulum of the radius
  14. where is the CR for AP oblique Projection -Lateral (external) rotation and what are the positioning instructions
    • CR to mid elbow
    • supinate hand and rotate the entire arm laterally 45 degrees (patient must lean laterally for sufficient rotation)
    • the crease of the elbow has to be 45 degrees
  15. what is best visualized when doing a lateral elbow (lateromedial projection)
    what is the positioning for this
    • elevated or displaced fat pads and best to visualize the olecrenon process
    • flex elbow 90 degrees and drop shoulder so that the humerus are on the same horizontal plane

    Image Upload 1

  16. what is best to view when doing the acute flexion projection of the elbow (jones method)
    what is the positioning and CR for distal humerus and proximal forearm?
    best to view distal humerus and proximal forearm and tip of olecranon process

    distal humerus: CR perpendicular to IR and humerus directed midway of epicondyles with patients arm in the flexed position

    proximal forearm: proximal humerus, CR perpendicular to forearm (angle is needed) and directed 2inches above olecranon process
  17. what is best visualized in trauma axial laterals (coyle method) part 1 position
    Position elbow flexed 90 degrees hand pronated

    • CR directed to 45 degrees toward the shoulder, centered to the radial head
    • best demonstrates the joint space between radial head and capitulum
    • radial head neck and tuberosity are in profile and free of superimposition except for a small part of the coronid process
  18. what is best viusalized in trauma axial lateral (coyle method) positioning part 2
    what is the position of the patient
    elbow flexed 80degrees hand pronated

    CR directed 45 degrees from the shoulder centered to the radial head

    Best views the space btw coronoid process and trochlea
  19. how many projections are need for RADIAL HEAD LATERALS
    • 4 projections only thing that changes is the hand and wrist
    • hand supinated
    • hand lateral
    • hand pronated
    • hand with maximum internal rotation
  20. what must we palpate when doing an AP humerus on a patient lying down
    palpate the epicondyles to ensure parallel to  IR (patient may need to lean laterally)
  21. where do we center for an AP humerus
    what is the position of the arm
    what is breathing instructions
    what two joints must be visualized
    • mid humerus
    • fully extended and supinate the hand
    • patient must hold their breath
    • shoulder and elbow joint
  22. how do we position the patient for a lateral humerus
    position patient with back to IR and elbow partially flexed. Body may be rotated toward affected side as needed to bring humerus and should in contact with casette

    palpate epicondyles to make sure they are perpendicular

    CR to mid humerus

    need both joints
  23. how do we do a trauma horizontal beam or cross table top
    where is the CR position of humerus and IR etc...
    • patient is recumbent take image with a horizontal beam
    • flex elbow if possible but do not attempt to rotate arm
    • gently placed IR between arm and thorax
    • CR to midpoint of distal two thirds of humerus
  24. what is the position of the epicondyles when doing a later humerus
    what is alternative position for a lateral humerus
    • epicondyles must be perpendicular to the IR
    • mediolateral projection with patient in a slight rao
  25. what is routine for the humerus
    • ap
    • lateromedial or mediolateral
  26. List all factors for an AP oblique projection - Medial (internal) rotation
    what does the position best visualize
    • 10x12
    • pronate hand and rotate the entire arm as needed until the sidtal humerus and anterior surface of the elbow are medial obliqued 45 degrees
    • CR to mid elbow
    • coronoid process of the ulna
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