Biochem 501: Lecture 26: Fatty Acid Synthesis

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Biochem 501: Lecture 26: Fatty Acid Synthesis
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2013-11-06 18:56:18
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Biochem 501
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  1. Precursor for fatty acid synthesis:
    Acetate (Acetyl-CoA)
  2. Synthesis of fatty acids takes place through:
    Repetitive condensations
  3. Intracellular location of fat synthesis:
    • Animals: Mitochondria, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Cytosol
    • Plants:
    • Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, Peroxisomes
  4. Reactions in Mitochondria
    • Animal: Fatty acid oxidation, Acetyl-CoA production, ketone body synthesis, fatty acid elongation
    • Plant: No fatty acid oxidation
  5. Reactions in Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Phospholipid synthesis
    • Sterol synthesis (late stages)
    • Fatty acid elongation
    • Fatty acid desaturation
  6. Reactions in cytosol
    • NADPH production (pentose path, malic enzyme)
    • Isoprenoid/sterol synthesis (early stages)
    • Fatty acid synthesis
  7. Malonyl-CoA Synthesis
    • Rate limiting/irreversible
    • Stimulated by citrate
    • Inhibited by Palmitoyl-CoA
    • Catalyzed by "biotin"
  8. Biotin Enzyme Structure
    3 sections, Biotin carboxylase, biotin carrier protein, and transcarboxylase
  9. Biotin Enzyme Function (Malonyl-CoA formation)
    Arm of biotin carrier protein binds CO2 with help of biotin carboxylase subunit, then moves to the transcarboxylase subunit to transfer CO2 to Acetyl-CoA
  10. Subunits of Fatty Acid Synthase Complex
  11. Condensation of Acetyl and Malonyl (2nd step of fatty acid synthesis)
  12. Reduction of Acetoacetyl-S-ACP (Third step of fatty acid synthesis)
  13. Dehydration (Fourth step of fatty acid synthesis)
  14. Second Reduction (Fifth step of fatty acid synthesis)
  15. Overall Accomplishment of Fatty acid synthesis steps 1-5?
    Addition of two carbons to initial acetyl group.
  16. Acetyl-Carrying Protein (ACP)
    Carries Acetyl group along the Fatty Acid Synthesis complex to necessary enzymes.
  17. Net reaction for fatty acid synthesis
    N Acetyl-CoA + N-1 ATP +2(N-1)NADPH + 2(N-1) H+ -----> Fatty acid + ADP+Pi+NADP+ N-2 H2O
  18. What carries out elongation and desaturation of fatty acids
    Accessory enzyme systems
  19. FA Synthase Complex # of separate subunits
    • Animals=1 polypeptide
    • Yeast= 2 polypeptide
    • Bacteria/Plants= 7 polypeptides
  20. Sources of NADPH in Fatty Acid synthesis
    • Pentose Shunt
    • Breakdown of Malate in the adipose tissue into Pyruvate
    • Plant chloroplasts
  21. Acetate Export from Mitochondria
  22. Regulation of FA synthesis
  23. Regulation of Fatty acid entrance into Mitochondria
    Fatty acids broken down inside mitochondria, made outside the mitochondria. When being created the second product, Malonyl-CoA, inhibits the protein responsible for taking FA in so that the loop isnt pointless
  24. Structures of Lipids
  25. Biosynthesis of Triglycerides
  26. Biosynthesis of Phospholipids

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