photosynthesis EXAM 3

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  1. Photoautotroph
    Use light as a source of energy¨Green plants, algae, cyanobacteria
  2. Photosynthesis
    photo energy to solar energy

    plants,algae, certain other protists, and some prokaryotes
  3. formula
    CO2 + H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + O2 + H2O

    • CO2 is reduced
    • H2O is oxidized
  4. Chloroplast
    green color is from chlorophyll

    split water
  5. stomata
    where O2 and CO2 is exchanged
  6. Mesophyll
    where chloroplasts are found
  7. thylokoid
    • in chloroplast
    • stacked columns known as grana

    has outer and inner membrane space
  8. Stroma
    fluid filled region between thylakoid membrane and inner membrane
  9. two stages of photosynthesis
    light reaction and calvin cycle
  10. light reaction
    • (in thylakoid)
    • Split H2O

    Release O2

    Reduce NADP+ to NADPH

    Generate ATP from ADP by photophosphorylation
  11. calvin cycle
    • in stroma
    • forms sugar from CO2, using ATP and NADPH

    The Calvin cycle begins with carbon fixation, incorporating CO2 into organic molecules
  12. light energy
    behaves like photons (shorter = more energy)
  13. photosynthetic pigments
    absorb some light energy and reflect others (why leaves are green
  14. absorption of pigments
    boosts electrons to higher energy levels
  15. carotenoids 
    absorb yellow an orange and other harmful things to cell
  16. chlorophyll a
     main photosynthetic pigment
  17. cholorophyl b
    broadens spectrum
  18. photosystems
    PSII FIRST then PSI (PS1 discovered first)
  19. PSII
    • oxidizes water
    • P680
  20. PSI
    • primarily make NADPH
    • P700
  21. ATP synthesis
    via atp synthesis
  22. H+ gradient
    across thylakoid membrane
  23. cyclic 
    uses only PSI no NAPDH 
  24. non cyclic
    • don't get H2O oxydized 
    • makes ATP and NADPH
  25. 6Co2 + 6 RuBP = 12 PGaL
    • 12 Pgal - 2 for glucose = 10 pgal
    • to make 6 rupb
  26. 3 phases of calvin cycle
    • carbon fixation
    • Reduction and carbohydrate production
    • Regeneration of RuBP
  27. photorepiration
    • fixes O2 via RuPB BUT it's not remade :/ 
    • only makes ATP
  28. C3 plant
    • CO2 directly from the air into calvin cycle
    • ie soybean, wheat, rice, etc
    • BUT stomata closed to converse water on hot dry days (goes into photo respiration)

    better in cooler temp b/c uses less energy
  29. C4 plant
    • has the bundle sheath (2 cell layer organization) 
    • can keep stomata closed BUT make glucose because 4 carbon molecule in sheath cells
    • ie corn, sugar cane, etc

    good in hot dry places
  30. CAM plant
    • keep stomata closed in day and open at night
    • store CO2 at night and use it in the day BUT is in the mesophyl cell
    • ie pineapple, cacti, etc 
Card Set:
photosynthesis EXAM 3
2013-11-07 15:25:41
photosynthesis exam biology

exam 3 biolgy
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