HSCI 003 Chapter 11 Pathologies

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HSCI 003 Chapter 11 Pathologies
2013-11-06 20:55:50
Medical Terminology

Pathologies of the cardiac system.
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  1. Flutter
    Very rapid regular contractions.
  2. Fibrillation
    Irregular heart beats.
  3. Coartation (COA)
    Narrowing of the aorta.
  4. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
    Passageway between the aorta and the pulmonary artery remains open after birth.
  5. Septal Defects
    Small holes in the wall between the atria or the ventricles.
  6. Tetraology of Fallot
    • Congenital malformation involving four distinct heart defects.
    • Pulmonary Artery Stenosis, Ventricular Septal Defect, Shift of the aorta to the right, Hypertrophy of the right ventricle.
  7. Angina
    Chest pain associated with exercise.
  8. Atherosclerosis
    Fatty materials on the walls of the arteries.
  9. Cardiac Tamponade
    compression of the heart caused by collection of fluid in the pericardial cavity.
  10. Claudication
    Pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking has begun, but absence of pain at rest.
  11. Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
    Heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood. There is Systolic and Diastolic.
  12. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
    Disease of the arteries surrounding the heart.
  13. Endocarditis
    Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart. Can produce legions called vegetations.
  14. Hypertensive Heart Disease
    High blood pressure affecting the heart.
  15. Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP)
    Improper closure of the mitral valve. It occurs because the valve enlarges and prolapses into the left atrium during systole.
  16. Murmur
    • Extra heart sound, heart between normal beats.
    • A bruit is an abnormal sound/murmur heard on asculation.
  17. Pericarditis
    • Inflammation of the membrane (pericardium) surrounding the heart. 
    • Usually results from a disease somewhere else in the body.
  18. Rheumatic Fever
    • Causes rheumatic heart disease.
    • A childhood heart disease that follows streptococci infection.
  19. Aneurysm
    • Local widening (dilation) of an arterial wall.
    • Usually caused by atherosclerosis and hypertension or a congenital weakness in the vessel wall.
  20. Hypertension
    High blood pressure.
  21. Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)
    Blockage of arteries carrying blood to the legs, arms, kidneys, and other organs.
  22. Raynaud Disease
    Recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis primarily in the fingers and toes.
  23. Varicose Veins
    • Abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occurring in the legs. 
    • Veins that fail to prevent the backflow of blood.
  24. BNP Test
    Measurement of BNP (brain neurotic peptide) in blood, which is elevated in heart failure.
  25. Lipid Tests
    Measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides (fats) in a blood sample.
  26. Angiography
    X-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material.
  27. Digital Subtraction Angiography
    Video equipment and a computer produce x-ray images of blood vessels.
  28. Dopplar Ultrasound
    Sound waves measure blood flow within blood vessels.
  29. Echocardiography (ECHO)
    Echoes generated by high-frequency sound waves produce images of the heart.
  30. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan
    Images show blood flow and myocardial function following uptake of radioactive glucose.
  31. Technetium
    Technetium Tc 99m sestambi injected intravenously is taken up in cardiac tissue, where it is detected by scanning.
  32. Thallium 201 Scan
    Concentration of radioactive thallium is measured to give information about blood supply to the heart muscle.
  33. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    Images of the heart are produced using radiowave energy in a magnetic field.
  34. Cardiac Catheterization
    Thin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery.