161a practical #2.txt

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pandaglasses
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245564
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161a practical #2.txt
Updated:
2013-11-08 15:08:04
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practical
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anatomy
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  1. Anterior articulation:concave
    Posterior articulation:concave

    Vertebrae type and taxa?
    • Amphicoelous(double hollow)
    • fish
  2. Anterior articulation:concave
    Posterior articulation:convex

    Articulation/vertebrae type and taxa?
    • Procoelous (before hollow)
    • reptiles
  3. Anterior articulation:convex
    Posterior articulation:concave

    Articulation type and taxa?
    • Opisthocoelous (behind hollow)
    • reptiles/large mammal cervixal vertebrae
  4. Anterior articulation:flat
    Posterior articulation:flat

    Articulation type and taxa?
    • Acoelous (w/o hollow)
    • mammal thoracic and lumbar vertebrae
  5. Anterior articulation:saddle-shaped
    Posterior articulation:saddle-shaped

    Articulation type and taxa?
    • Heterocoelous (different hollow)
    • bird and turtle cervixal vertebrae
  6. Neck
    Allow for movement of the head
    • Cervical
    • Atlas and axis (1st &2nd)
    • #7
  7. Anteriot trunk
    The ___ is the first vertebra fully rotating in a vertical plan due to changes zin orentation of the anterior and posterior articular processes.
    The ___ comprises the last few thoracic and lumbar vertebrae.
    • Thoracic
    • anticlinal
    • #7
  8. Posterior trunk
    • Lumbar
    • #7
  9. Pelvis
    • Sacral
    • #3
  10. Tail
    • Caudal
    • #~20
  11. # of foot elements off ground:0
    All in contact w ith the ground
    • Platigrade
    • bears, humans
  12. # of foot elements off ground:1
    Metacarpals/digits in contact
    • Digitigrade
    • cats, dogs
  13. # of foot elemts off ground: 2
    Digits in contact
    • Unguligrade
    • Horses, cows
  14. Lengthening of limbs to body size (lengthen distal elements shorten proximal)
    Decrease # of foot elements touching the ground
    Increase anterior/posterior movement
    Increase dorsal/ventral flexion of spine
    Move muscle origin and insertion closer to joint

    Decrease lateral/rotational movement by fusion of lower limb elements, hinge joints
    Limb muscles moved proximally, reduction in weight and/or number of lower limb elements

    Bipedal hoppers use tail as a counterbalance and to change direction
    Lumbar vertebrae long anf broad, thoracic short and narrow, cervical short and can befused, innominatr bones tightly fused to sacrum
    • Cursorial
    • Quadrupedal hunters-cat, dog, lion
    • Quadrapedal grazers-horse cow, camel, rabbi
    • Bipedal-human, kangaroo, kangaroo rat
  15. Decrease length of limbs relative to body size
    Move muscle origin and insertiin away from joint
    Increase relative size of muscles-origin and insertion sites prominent
    Innominate bones inline with spine, tightly fused to a long sacrum, decrease spine flexibility
    Lited movement of joints to prevent dislocation and hyperextension
    Increase breadth of hand, foot, head, etc
    Modified for force; digging
    • Fossorial
    • Scratch diggers-armadillo, ground squirrel
    • Chisel-tooth diggers-pocket gopher
    • Humeral-rotation diggers-moles
  16. Decrease lemgth of distal elements, increase diameter to evenly distribute mass
    Limb bone straighy , oriented vertically, joints inline with bones acetabulum and directed downward
    Vertebral colimn stiffening, little movement around limb joints
    Adapted for carrying heavy loads
    Graviportal-elephant
  17. Between branch climbers
    Increase length of trunk/limbs- distal elements not especially lengthened
    Increase lateral/rotational movement theough free lower limb elements, ball and socket joints
    Origin and insertion not prominent
    Opposable sigits ling, curved digits and claws
    Prehensible capabilities in tail

    Below branch climbers
    Increase length of limbs relative to body size, especially forelimbs
    Forelimbs can be completely straightened, scapula lies flat over back with glenoid oriented laterally, anteriorly, thorax, dorsoventrally flattened
    Lumbar region in joints shortened and stiffened
    Adapted for climbing; maneuverability and stability
    • scansorial
    • Above branch climbers-tree squirrel, three shrew
    • Between branch climbers-opposum, sloth, monkey
    • Below branch climbers-orangutan
  18. Hopping animals
    Saltatorial animals
  19. Teres major
    • O:cranial border of scapula
    • I: proximal humerus

    Action: retracts humerus/ rotates it medially
  20. Biceps brachii
    • O: dorsal border of glenoid fossa
    • I: radial tuberosity

    • Action: flex and supinate forearm
    • ( to turn/rotate the hand/ forearm so palm faces up or foreward)
  21. Triceps brachii
    • O: long-head axillary border of scapula below glenoid; medial and lateral heads- shaft of humerus
    • I: olecranon

    Action:extend forearm
  22. Quadriceps femoris
    • O:ilium + proximal femur
    • I: patella and tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament

    Action: extend tibia, protract femur
  23. Ischio-pubic series
    • O:ischial tuberosity and ischiopubic symphysis
    • I: medial surface of distal femur and proximal tibia

    Action: flex tibia, retract femur
  24. Gluteal series
    • O: Lateral ilium and neural spines of sacral vertebrae
    • I: greater trochanter of femur

    Action: retract femur
  25. Gastrocnemius
    • O: lateral and medial epicondyle of femur
    • I: calcaneal tuber

    Action:extend foot
    • 1. transverse process
    • 2. prezygapophysis
    • 3. spinous process
    • 4. articular facet
    • 5. centrum
    • 6. vertebral canal 
    • 7.postzygapophysis
    • 8. Atlantal foramen 
    • 9. vertebral canal
    • 10. prezygapophysis
    • 11. transverse foramen
    • 12. post zygapophysis
    • 13. transverse process
    • 14. odontoid process
    • 15. spinous process
    • 16. postzygapophysis
    • 17. prezygapophysis
    • 18. transverse foramen
    • 19. transverse process
    • 20. centrum
    • 21. vertebral canal
    • 22. spinous process
    • 23. lamina
    • 24. prezygapophysis
    • 25. transverse foramen
    • 26. centrum
    • 27. pedicle
    • 28. transverse process
    • 29. pleurapophysis
    • 30. mamillary process
    • 31. spinous process
    • 32. accessory process
    • 33. postzygapophysis
    • 34. fused pleurapophyses
    • 35. articular surface (with ilium)
    • 36. sacral canal
    • 37. spinous process
    • 38. prezygapophysis
    • 39. hemal process
    • 40. hemal arch
    • 41. manubrium
    • 42. sternebra
    • 43. xiphisternum
    • 43.5. xiphoid process
    • 44. body
    • 45. capitulum
    • 46. neck
    • 47. tuberculum
    • 48. angular process
    • 49. body
    • 50. capitulum
    • 51. tuberculum
    • 52. supraspinous fossa
    • 53. cranial border
    • 54. acromion process
    • 55.dorsal border
    • 56. scapular spine
    • 57. infraspinous fossa
    • 58. tuberosity of the spine
    • 59. caudal borer
    • 60. metacromion
    • 61. subscapular fossa
    • 62. glenoid fossa
    • 63. corocoid process
  26. 64. sternal end
    • 65. head
    • 66. bicipital tuberosity
    • 67. styloid process
    • 68. head
    • 69. lesser tuberosity
    • 70. supracondyloid foramen
    • 71. medial epicondyle
    • 72. trochlea
    • 73. capitulum
    • 74. olecranon fossa
    • 75. lesser tuberosity
    • 76. greater tuberosity
    • 77. bicipital groove
    • 78. pectoral ridge
    • 79. supracondyloid ridge
    • 80. radial fossa
    • 81. lateral epicondyle
    • 82. capitulum
    • 83. trochlea
    • 83.5. medial epicondyle
    • 84. olecranon
    • 85. semilunar notch
    • 86. radial notch
    • 87. corocoid process
    • 88. styloid process
    • 89. first digit
    • 90. metacarpals
    • 91. phalanges
    • 92. crest of ilium
    • 93. body of ilium
    • 94. iliopectineal eminence
    • 95. body of pubis
    • 96. ramus of pubis
    • 97. tuberosity of ischium
    • 98. acetabular bone
    • 99. spine of ischium
    • 100. body of ischium
    • 101. obturator foramen
    • 102. ischiadic symphysis
    • 103. pubic symphysis
    • 104. head
    • 105. lesser trochanter
    • 106. linea aspera
    • 107. trochanteric fossa
    • 108. greater trochanter
    • 109. medial condyle
    • 110. intercondyloid fossa
    • 111. intercondyloid fossa
    • 112. lateral condyle
    • 113. medial epicondyle
    • 114. patellar surface
    • 115. lateral epicondyle
    • 115. femur
    • 116. patella
    • 117.medial condyle
    • 118. lateral condyle
    • 119. tibial tuberosity
    • 120. lateral tuberosity
    • 121. tibial crest
    • 122. medial malleolus
    • 123. lateral malleolus
    • 124. calcaneus
    • 125. talus
    • 126. metatarsals
    • 127. first metatarsal
    • 128. phalanges
  27. anticlinal vertebra
  28. point of articulation to axial skeleton for forelimbs
    • pectoral girdle
    • -scaupla
    • -clavicle
  29. point of articulation of hindlimbs to axial skeleton
    • pelvic girdle
    • -ilium(red)
    • -pubis(blue)
    • -ischium(green)

  30. Fincreases by:
    • Increasing Li and decreasing Lo
    • speed decreases as force increases
  31. Vincreases by:
    • increasing Lo and decreasing L
    • force decreases because Lincreases
  32. waves passed along propulsive unit
    undulatory swimmers
  33. PU=vertebral column
    undulatory swimmers: axial-based
  34. PU= lateral or medial fins
    • undulatory swimmers: fin-based
    • salamander, crocodile, cetaceans
  35. PU beats back/forth or up/down
    oscillatory swimmers
  36. PU acts as a paddle or oar-pulled at right angles to direction of motion -includes power and recovery stroke
    • oscillatory swimmers:drag-based
    • ie. frog, duck, manatee
  37. Pu acts as a wing-held with only a small angle of incidence to direction of motion
    • oscillatory swimmer: lift-based
    • ie. sealion, sea turtle, penguin
    • 1. Posttemporal
    • 2. cleithrum series(supracleitrum, postcleitrum, cleitrum)
    • 3. scapulocorocoid(anterior corocoid + scapula)
    • frog: urostyle
    • salamander:
    • 1. suprascapular cartilage
    • 2. procoracoid (anterior corocoid)
    • Lizard(reptiles):
    • 1. interclavicle
    • 2. sternum
    • 3. corocoid
    • Turtle(reptile)
    • 1.acromial process
    • 2. corocoid (anterior corocoid)
    • Birds:
    • 1. carpometacarpus
    • 2. tarsometatarsus
    • 3. tibiotarsus
    • 4. keeled sternum
    • 5. furcula
    • 6. synsacrum
    • 7. pygostyle
    • 8. foramen triosseum
    • 9. corocoid(anterior corocoid)
    • 10. uncinate process
  38. tail loss in modern form results in ___ -derivative of the anterior caudal vertebrate
    • urostyle
    • amphibians
  39. bones in aves are:____ and filled with ____
    • 1. pneumatic
    • 2. spicules (hollow spaces within bone)

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