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What is a key mechanism for bio-politics?
Statistics are a key mechanism in ensuring the population remain healthy
Why is bio-politics and pastoral care important?
It is important because the body population needs to be healthy in order for a functioning capitalist society
What does Bio-politics do in relation regulated bodies?
- Regulated bodies, such as the government are concerned with the health and well being of the population and individuals within society.
- They regulate and emphasize a healthy lifestyle choices through pastoral care in an indirect manner.
Power over life, the management of life via regulated bodies
Give some example of bio-politics
Government Campaigns such as quit smoking and John Kerwyns depression ads exemplify top-down pastoral care for people who need to take individual action. The ads led to a govt funded phone number and/or website.
What are subcultures?
Potentially revolutionary, radical, and represented as deviant groups
Who is the key thinker for bio-politics
Who are the key thinkers for subcultures?
Ken Gielder and Dick Hebidge
Eloborate of what the subcultural key thinkers do...
Emphasis the proletarian origins and often use and ethnographic approachs to gain an understanding of a subculture
What are the two main sub cultural schools of thought
- Chicago - looked at deviant youth gangs
- Birmingham - looked at class based struggle
What is a moral panic?
A moral panic is produced when subcultural groups are represented as threats to society
Key thinker of moral panic and what did he outline?
Stan Cohen outlined how the mods and rocker movement were deemed folk devils and a threat to society
Sarah Thorntons ideas?
She outlines how the media produce and constitute moral panics
Moral panic example?
The mongrol mob, language dissourse use with words like savage phenomenon, which makes people fearful, also the media gives the group a label
Cultural Public Sphere, define?
A place for the production, circulation and consumption of cultural products which generate rational critical debate outside the official public sphere
Key thinker - Cultural public sphere, how did he use Habermas's ideas
Jim McGuigan used Habermas's original literary public ideas as a launch pad, expanding on Habermas's literary public sphere. In doing so McGuigan conceptualized that literary products create affective responses within publics
What is affective?
Affecting being more then just cognitive discourses but rather an embodied sensation which is more then emotions
Explain the three general responses to the cultural public sphere
- 1) Critical Interventionist
- - Careful, critical and reflective.
- 2) Subversive
- - assumes that the media is already co-opted by the dominating group and the only way to create discussion is through subversion of mainstream media.
- 3) Celebratory
- - reflects as innate belief of the revolutionary potential of popular media
Cultural Public sphere example
Miley Cyrus's wrecking ball video, takes a stance at being in between critical interventionist and and subversive.
Define a public sphere?
A public sphere is a place where private citizens come together to discuss topical issues of concern.
Key thinker and eloborate on the public sphere
Key thinker Jurgen Habermas outlined the public sphere in his book the structural transformation of the public sphere, 1960's translated to english in the 90's
The beginning of the public sphere?
- Begun in 17th to 19th century france where bourgeios gathered together in coffee houses and salloons to discuss public issues.
- Men were concerned about the monarchies spending outlined in recently publicised flyers
Outline the decline of the public sphere?
Was due to commercial interests being eroded due to the industrial revolution
Publicity and the public sphere with an example?
- Hebaermas deemed private and publicity trivial. Today there is hardly a public sphere due to people being to caught up in issues of publicity.
- The royal baby is an example of this
Hegemony can be defined as dominant groups maintains their dominance by gaining the spontaneous consent of subcultural groups.
Key thinkers of hegemony and what do they think about it?
- Antiono Gramsci and Stuart Hall outlined that gaining Hegemony is gaining some control of how people see the world and their place within it.
- - Hegemoney is also dependent of the consent form oppressed groups (media play a key role in perpetuating hegemonic ideas.
What is Gramsci say about Hegemony?
Gramsic said power over life structure, such as capitalism , which are represented in everyday media (commodity culture life style) have a key role in developing norms
- The New Zealand News media often portray bourgeoisie stereotypes against proletarian sterotypes.
- News items juxtapose images of wealthy or middle class against each Maori's or are shown in state houses etc. (also Maori's are often named, nominated as others)
What are counter publics (key thinker)
Counter publics are a key critique to the public sphere by Nancy Fraser
What do counter publics do?
Counterpublics contest the exclusionary norms of Habermas's original public sphere elaborating alternative styles of political behavior
Habermas ideas are...
Also discuss private issues
- Habermas's ideas have been considered eletist and idealistic.
- The lack of concern in private issues which Habermas deemed trivial led to further crutques
Subaltern publics, explain
- Fraser expanded on Gramsci's subaltern publics which are essentially the inclusion of margalinised groups such as woman, migrants and working class.
- Counterpublics are therefore an extension or type of suubaltern public
What do counterpublics aim to do, and example
- Counterpublics aim to brodern discussion around issues that are oppositional to the dominant public sphere.
- An example of this is aqua porko, in opposition to dominant skinny is healthy debate.
An extension of ideas regarding the active audience
Key thinkers of fandom and their ideas
- John Fiske and Henry jenkins emphaise active audiences.
- - Now days audiences are more then just passive dupes
How do fans read texts?
In a preferred, resistant or negotiated manner.
What has technology enabled in terms of fandom?
- Technology has now enabled audiences to take a more active stance further creating a patisapory culture and prosumers.
- Intenet technologys allow fans to respond to texts
- Starwars and LOR example