Cardiovascular System

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michaelirby98
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245574
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Cardiovascular System
Updated:
2013-11-12 01:59:11
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Cardiovascular System vessels blood anatomy
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Cardiovascular System, vessels, blood, anatomy
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  1. 5 Types of blood vessels
    • Arteries
    • Arterioles 
    • Capillaries 
    • Venules 
    • Veins
  2. Arteries
    • Carry blood away from heart to body tissues
    • Under the highest pressure 
    • Thickest walled (Tunica Media)
    • Narrower Lumen than veins 
    • Higher elastic & collagen fiber content 
    • Usually carry oxygenated blood
  3. Capillaries
    Site of most exchange
  4. Veins
    • Return blood from tissues to heart
    • Receive blood from capillaries 
    • Under lower pressure than arteries 
    • Tunica Externa is the thickest layer
    • Wider Lumen
    • More numerous
  5. Typical Blood Pathway
    Heart > Large, elastic arteries > Medium, muscular arteries > Smaller Arteries > Arterioles > Capillaries > Venules > Veins > Hearts
  6. Blood Vessel Tunics
    • Tunica Intima (Interna)
    • Tunica Media
    • Tunica Externa (Adventitia)
  7. Tunica Intima
    • Thin, most innermost layer
    • Endothelium ( Simple Squamous ET) + Basement Membrane (Areolar CT)
  8. Tunica Media
    • Middle, most variable of tunics
    • Circularly arranged smooth muscle cells 
    • Regulates blood flow via vasoconstriction & vasodilation
  9. Tunica Externa
    • Outermost tunic 
    • Areolar CT with elastic & collagen fibers 
    • Creates an attachment
    • Includes Vaso vasorum
  10. Vaso Vasorum
    • Network of blood vessels in the Tunica Externa
    • Only in the largest vessels
  11. 2 Types of Arteries
    • Elastic (Conducting) 
    • Muscular (Distribution)
  12. Elastic Arteries
    • Largest type of artery (Aorta, Pulmonary Trunk)
    • Thickest Tunica Media with increased elastic tissue
    • Can stretch and recoil
    • Reduces pressure differences between systole & Diastole 
    • Branch into muscular arteries
  13. Muscular Arteries
    • Distribution 
    • Tunica Media: Smooth muscle fibers > elastic fibers 
    • Can change diameter 
    • Can influence blood flow & blood pressure 
    • Capable of Growth & establishing collateral circ
    • Contract when injured
  14. Arterioles
    • Smallest arteries 
    • Retain small amounts of smoth muscle in tunica media 
    • Metarterioles deliver blood to capillaries 
    • Regulate capillary blood flow via vaso constriction(decrease) & vasodilation(increase)
  15. Capillaries
    • Thinnest walls (Tunica intima ONLY; no tunica media or externa)
    • Site of Exchange (mostly diffusion)
    • Capillaries form capillary beds 
    • Contain precapillary Spincters
  16. Precapillary Spincters
    • At the origin of each true capillary
    • A smooth muscle ring at metarteriole-capillary junction
    • Regulate blood flow into capillary 
    • When contracted, thoroughfare channel carries blood directly to venule, bypassing capillaries
  17. Types of Capillaries
    • Continuous (Skin & Muscles)
    • Fenestrated (Small intestine & Kidneys)
    • Sinusoids (Bone marrow & Liver)
  18. Continuous Capillaries
    • Most Common
    • Continuous tube of plasma membrane with tight junctions & intercellular fluids
    • Continuous basement membrane 
    • (Skin & Muscles)
  19. Fenestrated Capillaries
    • Numerous, small pores in plasma membrane
    • Continuous basement membrane
    • Needed where lots of exchange occur 
    • (Small Intestine & Kidneys)
  20. Sinusoids Capillaries
    • Larger gaps in plasma membrane 
    • Discontinuous or absent basement membrane
    • Allow for great deal of exchange and large molecules (Proteins)
    • (Bone marrow & Liver)
  21. Venules
    • Smallest veins (have up to 3 tunics)
    • Postcapillary venules receive from capillaries 
    • Muscular Venules; 2-3 layers smoth muscle cells; no exchange
  22. Double set of veins
    • Connected by anastomotic veins 
    • Anastomotic veins cross artery & form numerous ladder-like rungs
  23. Superficial Veins
    In subcutaneous layer w/out companion arteries; main route in arms
  24. Deep veins
    • Between skeletal muscles
    • Main route in legs
  25. Anastomotic Veins
    • Connect double set veins 
    • Ladder-like 
    • Join superficial and deep veins
  26. Pulmonary Circuit
    • Circulation in right right side of heart and lungs
    • Right chambers
    • Pulmonary Arteries 
    • Pulmonary Veins
  27. Systemic Circuit
    • Circulation between left side of heart and body tissues 
    • Portal Systems
    • Fetal Circulation
  28. Portal Systems
    • Present in Systemic Circulation 
    • When blood passes from one capillary network into another through a portal vein
    • Humans have two portal systems
  29. Two Portal Systems in Humans
    • Hepatic Portal System
    • Hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system
  30. Postcapillary venules
    • Receive from capillaries 
    • Primary site of WBC emigration 
    • Some exchange
  31. Muscular Venules
    • 2-3 layers of smooth muscle (tunica) 
    • No exchange
  32. Venus Return
    The return of blood to the heart from the veins
  33. Skeletal Muscle Pump
    Skeletal Muscle Contractions for blood up through veins
  34. Respiratory Pump
    • Deep breathing*
    • Pressure drops in thoracic cavity during inhalation, pulling blood into Venae Cava
  35. Hepatic Portal System
    • Where liver receives blood from digestive organs.
    • Liver absorbs & processe nutrients, detoxifies
    • Contains substances absorbed from digestive tract 
    • Cycles through liver before circulating 
    • Venous System
  36. Hypothalamo-hypophyseal Portal System
    • Anterior pituitary
    • Shunts blood directly from hypothalamus to the adenohypophysis 
    • Allows hypothalamus to rapidly control anterior pituitary
  37. Fetal Circulation
    • Differs from newborn (& adult)
    • Allows fetus to exchange materials with mother 
    • Fetal lungs, kidneys & GI tract not fully functional 
    • Allows blood to be shunted
  38. Placenta in Fetal Circulation allows
    • Exchange between fetal blood & maternal blood occurs at placenta 
    • Placenta is site of gad exchange 
    • Source of nutrients 
    • Site of metaboic waste disposal
  39. Placental/Umbilical Vein
    • Drains oxygenated blood from placenta to fetus 
    • Carries nutrients to fetus 
    • Passes within umbilical cord & enters fetus at umbilicus 
    • Branches below liver
    • -1st branch joins hepatic portal vein
    • -22nd becomes Ductus Venosus
  40. Ductus Venosus
    • Branch of Umbilical Vein (oxygenated)
    • Shunt that bypasses liver
    • Empties into inferior vena cava 
    • Oxygenated blood from ductus venosus mixes with deoxygenated blood of IVC
  41. Foramen Ovale
    • Shunt that bypasses Pulmonary Circ
    • Interatrial opening 
    • Blood passes from R atrium to L atrium 
    • Moderate Oxygen content
  42. Ductus Arteriosus
    • Shunt that bypasses pulmonary circ
    • Connects Pulmonary trunk & aorta 
    • Diverts most of blood leaving R ventricle away from lungs & into aorta/systemic circ
    • Moderate oxygen content
  43. Placental/Umbilical Arteries
    • Carry blood towards placenta 
    • Branch of Internal Iliac Arteries 
    • Exits fetus through umbilicus
    • Carries blood to fetus- (moderately) oxygenated.
  44. Umbilical Vein gives rise to ___
    Round Ligament of Liver
  45. Ductus Venosus gives rise to ___
    Ligamentum Venosum
  46. Foramen Ovale gives rise to ___
    Fossa Ovalis
  47. Ductus Arteriosus rises to ____
    Ligamentum Arteriosum
  48. Umbilical Arteries rises to ____
    Medial Umbilical Ligaments

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