Biomechanical Model Jumping.txt

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Biomechanical Model Jumping.txt
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2013-11-07 00:56:06
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  1. Theoretical: Coefficient of Friction
    A larger coefficient of friction will create more friction force and greater total external force to push against. Greater external force to push against allows greater ankle plantar flexion muscle force, knee extension muscle force, and hip extension muscle force to be exerted.

    Greater ankle plantar flexion muscle force creates greater ankle plantar flexion joint torque and greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity. Greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints superior to the ankle.

    Greater knee extension muscle force creates greater knee extension joint torque and greater knee extension angular velocity. Greater knee extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints superior to the knee.

    Greater hip extension muscle force creates greater hip extension joint torque and greater hip extension angular velocity. Greater hip extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints superior to the hip.

    The coordinated increase in joint linear speeds due to a larger coefficient of friction will result in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.
  2. Real-World: Coefficient of Friction
    to create a larger coefficient of friction, the bottom surface of the shows that you are wearing must have two characteristics:

    (1) the material of the soles must be soft

    (2) the surface of the soles must be rough
  3. Theoretical: Vertical Ground Reaction Force
    A larger vertical ground reaction force creates greater friction force and greater total external force to push against. Greater external force to push against allows greater ankle plantar flexion muscle force, knee extension muscle force, and hip extension muscle force to be exerted.

    Greater ankle plantar flexion muscle force creates greater ankle plantar flexion joint torque and greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity. Greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints superior to the ankle.

    Greater knee extension muscle force creates greater knee extension joint torque and greater knee extension angular velocity. Greater knee extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints superior to the knee.

    Greater hip extension muscle force creates greater hip extension joint torque and greater hip extension angular velocity. Greater hip extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints superior to the hip.

    The coordinated increase in joint linear speeds due to a larger vertical ground reaction force will result in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.
  4. Real-World: Vertical Ground Reaction Force
    to create a larger vertical ground reaction force, you must perform the vertical or horizontal jump on the hardest surface possible
  5. Theoretical: Muscle Force
    For the ankle muscle force box:

    Greater ankle plantar flexion muscle force creates greater ankle plantar flexion joint torque and greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity. Greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints superior to the ankle.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to the ankle due to greater ankle plantar flexion muscle force results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.

    For the knee muscle force box:

    Greater knee extension muscle force creates greater knee extension angular velocity. Greater knee extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints superior to the knee.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to the knee due to greater knee extension muscle force results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.

    For the  hip muscle force box:

    Greater hip extension muscle force creates greater hip extension joint torque and greater hip extension angular velocity. Greater hip extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints superior to the hip.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to the hip due to greater hip extension muscle force results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.
  6. Real-World: Muscle Force
    To create a larger muscle force, three factors that influence the size of the muscle force must be considered.

    (1) muscle size (increase via training)

    (2) muscle length (120% = most muscle force)

    (3) speed of muscle contraction (contracted slower = more muscle force)
  7. Muscles Involved in Jumping
    Ankle Plantarflexion:

    • fibularis longus
    • fibularis brevis
    • gastrocnemius
    • plantaris
    • soleus
    • tibialis posterior

    Knee Extension:

    • gluteus maximus
    • rectus femoris
    • popliteus
    • semitendinosus
    • semimembranosus
    • tensor fasciae latae

    Hip Extension

    • adductor magnus
    • biceps femoris
    • gluteus maximus
    • gluteus medialis
    • gluteus minimus
    • semitendinosus
    • semimembranosus
  8. Theoretical: Moment Arm
    From the ankle moment arm box:

    A longer plantar flexion moment arm at the ankle joint creates greater ankle plantar flexion joint torque and greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity. Greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints superior to the ankle.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to a longer ankle plantar flexion moment arm results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.

    For the knee moment arm box:

    A longer knee extension moment arm at the knee joint creates greater knee extension joint torque and greater knee extension angular velocity. Greater knee exntesion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints superior to the knee.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to the knee due to a longer knee extension moment arm results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.

    For the hip moment arm box:

    A longer hip extension moment arm at the hip joint creates greater hip extension joint torque and greater hip extension angular velocity. Greater hip extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints superior to the hip.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to the hip due to a longer hip extension moment arm results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.
  9. Real-World: Moment Arm
    The distance from the joint's axis of rotation to the line of pull of the muscle force.

    To increase the moment arm distance, you would need to move the line of pull of the muscle force further away from the joint's axis of rotation.

    One method for moving the line of pull of the muscle force would be to change the locations of the origin and insertion points for the muscle. This is not an option because it would be unethical to perform this type of surgery.
  10. Theoretical: Mass
    For the ankle mass box:

    A smaller body component mass superior to the ankle results in less angular inertia (i.e, less resistance to angular motion) for the body component. This will create greater ankle planter flexion angular velocity. Greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints superior to the ankle.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to the ankle due to smaller body component mass superior to the ankle results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.

    For the knee mass box:

    A small body component mass superior to the knee results in less angular inertia (i.e., less resistance to angular motion) for the body component. This will create greater knee extension angular velocity. Greater knee extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints superior to the knee.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to the knee due to a smaller body component mass superior to the knee results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.

    For the hip mass box:

    A smaller body component mass superior to the hip results in less angular inertia (i.e., less resistance to angular motion) for the body component. This will create greater hip extension angular velocity. Greater hip extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints superior to the hip.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to the hip due to a smaller body component mass superior to the hip results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.
  11. Real-World: Mass
    Short-term for body component mass

    • (1) wear the lightest clothing possible
    • (2) wear the lightest shoes possible

    Long-term for body component mass

    (1) losing fat mass
  12. Theoretical: Radius of Resistance
    For the ankle radius of resistance box:

    A shorter radius of resistance for the body component mass superior to the ankle results in less angular inertia (i.e., less resistance to angular motion) for the body component. This will create greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity. Greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints superior to the ankle.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to the ankle due to a shorter radius of resistance for the body component superior to the ankle results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.

    For the knee radius of resistance box:

    A shorter radius of resistance for the body component mass superior to the knee results in less angular inertia (i.e., less resistance to angular motion) for the body component. This will create greater knee extension angular velocity. Greater knee extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints superior to the knee.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to the knee due to a shorter radius of resistance for the body component superior to the knee results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.

    For the hip radius of resistance box:

    A shorter radius of resistance for the body component superior to the hip results in less angular inertia (i.e., less resistance to angular motion) for the body component. This will create greater hip extension angular velocity. Greater hip extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints superior to the hip.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to the hip due to a shorter radius of resistance for the body component superior to the hip results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.
  13. Real-World: Radius of Resistance
    The distance from the joint's axis of rotation to the center of mass of the body component.

    The length of the radius of resistance is determined by bone length and joint orientation. There is nothing we can do to decrease bone length.

    However, similar to changing the moment arm distance, we can shorten the radius of resistance by changing the angles of the joints with the body component being rotated.

    Any change in a joint angle that brings a portion of the body component closer to the axis of rotation will shorten the radius of resistance.
  14. Theoretical: Application Time of Joint Torque
    For the ankle application time of joint torque box:

    A longer application time of the ankle plantar flexion joint torque will create greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity. Greater ankle plantar flexion angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints superior to the ankle.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to the ankle due to the longer application time of the ankle plantar flexion joint torque results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.

    For the knee application time of joint torque box:

    A longer application time of the knee extension joint torque will create greater knee extension angular velocity. Greater knee extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints superior to the knee.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to the knee due to the longer application time of the knee extension joint torque results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.

    For the hip application time of joint torque box:

    A longer application time of the hip etension joint torque will create greater hip extension angular velocity. Greater hip extension angular velocity creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints superior to the hip.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to the hip due to the longer application time of the hip extension joint torque results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.
  15. Real-World: Application Time of Each Muscle Torque
    For the ankle:

    (1) During the preparation phase, the ankle must be dorsiflexed

    (2) During the execution phase, a concentric ankle plantar flexion joint torque is applied until the ankle is maximally plantar flexed. 

    For the knee:

    (1) During the preparation phase, the knee must be flexed

    (2) During the execution phase, a concentric knee extension joint torque is applied until the knee is maximally extended

    For the hip:

    (1) During the preparation phase, the hip must be flexed and eccentrically contracted

    (2) During the execution phase, a concentric hip extension joint torque is applied until the hip is maximally extended
  16. Theoretical: Radius of Rotation
    For the ankle radius of rotation box:

    A longer radius of rotation for the body component superior to the ankle joint creates greater linear speed of the ankle and all joints superior to the ankle.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to the ankle due to the longer radius of rotation for the body component superior to the ankle results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.

    For the knee radius of resistance box:

    A longer radius of rotation for the body component superior to the knee joint creates greater linear speed of the knee and all joints superior to the knee.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to the knee due to the longer radius of rotation for the body component superior to the knee results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.

    For the hip radius of rotation box:

    A longer radius of rotation for the body component superior to the hip joint creates greater linear speed of the hip and all joints superior to the hip.

    The increase in joint linear speeds superior to the hip due to the longer radius of rotation for the body component superior to the hip results in greater linear speed for the jumper when leaving the ground. This will lead to greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.
  17. Real-World: Radius of Rotation
    The distance from the joint's axis of rotation to the point of interest on the body component.

    The length of the radius of rotation is determined by bone length and joint orientation. There is nothing we can do to increase bone length.

    However, similar to changing the moment arm and the radius of resistance, we can change the radius of rotation by changing the angles of the joints within the body component being rotated.

    Any change in a joint angle that rotates a portion of the body component farther from the axis of rotation will lengthen the radius of rotation.
  18. Theoretical: Relative Projection Height
    A positive relative projection height will result in greater time in the air and greater horizontal jump distance.

    Relative projection height does not have an impact on vertical jump height
  19. Real-World: Relative Projection Height
    To achieve a positive relative projection height for a horizontal jump, you would have to leave the ground with your center of gravity as high as possible and then land with your center of gravity as low as possible.
  20. Theoretical: Jumper's Projection Angle
    An optimal jumper's projection angle will result in greater time in the air and greater vertical jump height and/or greater horizontal jump distance.
  21. Real-World: Jumper's Projection Angle
    To achieve the optimal projection angle for maximum vertical jump height, you would leave the ground with a projection angle of 90 degrees.

    For the maximizing horizontal distance, the optimal projection angle is dependent on the relative projection height (RPH).

    If RPH = zero, leave the ground with a projection angle of 45 degrees

    If RPH is positive, the jumper's projection angle should be LESS THAN 45 degrees

    If RPH is negative, the jumper's projection angle should be GREATER THAN 45 degrees

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