Card Set Information

2013-12-08 23:41:42
Comp exam dietetics nutrition

comp exam
Show Answers:

  1. National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)
    • 1.Right to organize and join labor unions
    • 2. Gave union the right to be the bargaining         agent.
    • 3.Created the NLRB-listens to unfair labor          practice.
  2. Taft Harley Labor Act ( Labor Management)
    • 1. Outlawed the closed shop
    • 2. Government can obtain injunction against strikes that endanger national health or safety
    • 3. Limited union shop to 1 year
    • 4. specified unfair labor practices of the union
  3. Landrum-Griffin (Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act)
    Bill of rights for union members
  4. Fair Labor Standards Act
    • 1. sets minimum wage
    • 2. Overtime must be paid time and one-half
    • 3. child labor laws regulates work hrs.
    •       -16/17 yr can work in non-hazard
    •       -in food service can handle knives only if in related program
  5. Family and Medical Leave Act
    • 1. If >50 worker
    • -Up to 12 workweeks of unpaid, job protected leave during any 12 months for birth, adoption, to care for immediate family member 
    • 2. equal job, not same job guaranteed.
  6. Americans with disabilities Act
    • 1. If >15 workers
    • 2. must provide reasonable accommodations
    • 3. "essential" job functions must be specified
  7. Job Description
    • Reflects required skills and responsibilities.
    • -Orientation, training,
  8. Job specification
    • 1. Duties involved, conditions, qualifications
    • 2. no detailed info on what to do or time involved
  9. work schedule
    hour-by-hour, training, tasks and time
  10. job breakdown
    What to do and how to do it-no time limits
  11. Job enlargement
    more similar tasks to alleviate boredom
  12. Structured interview
    • minimizes personal biases
    • same info for all
    • checklist of pre-planned strategy
  13. unstructured interview
    • more participation
    • no checklist
    • " tell me about your last job"
  14. Statutory benefit
    Payment required by law to ensure income in event of unemployment, injury or death
  15. Compensatory benefit
    benefits or pay for time not worked
  16. supplementary
    life and health insurance
  17. Unionization
    collective bargaining
  18. Check-off
    deduction of union dues from pay
  19. Union shop
    must join union
  20. open shop
    can join union or not
  21. Closed shop
    must be member of union first
  22. agency shop
    all workers must pay agency fee, but are not required to join
  23. Right to work law
    Illegal to fire an employee who refuses to join a union even if contract has a union shop clause
  24. protection against unfair union practices
    Cannot refuse to bargain collectively with employer, engage in secondary boycotts, charge excessive fees, or cause an employer to pay for services not performed.
  25. union steward
    an employee who represents fellow employee as the union representative (not paid extra for this)
  26. collective bargaining
    one person represents a group of people to bargain with the employer
  27. if bargaining fails?
    • mediation
    • arbitration- hearing to dissolve a dispute during an impasse; decision usually binding (FINAL STEP IN BARGAINING)
  28. Injuction
    court order to prevent someone from doing something
  29. Steps taken to correct undesirable behavior
    • 1. Oral warning (temp in record)
    • 2. written warning (permanent)
    • 3. suspension (w/o pay) (permanent)
    • 4. dismissal
  30. Operating budget
    forecast revenue and expenses then budget
  31. Cash budget
    projects revenues and expenses, showing inflow and output of cash
  32. Capital budget
    plant facilities, equipment, cost of improvements and repairs
  33. Traditional  (incremental) line item budget
    • uses existing budget as a base and project changes for the ensuing year in relation to the current budget
    • b. usually begins with this year's expenses plus an inflation factor
    • c. control oriented
  34. zero-based budget
    • a.NOT this year's expenses plus inflation factor
    • b. begins at zero. must justify each expense
    • ex PPBS-Planning, programming, budgeting system
    • c. planning oriented
  35. flexible budget
    adjust to various levels of operation with varying levels of sales or revenue 

    ex. closing for renovation
  36. performance budget
    details what it costs to perform an activity such as supervise the cafeteria.
  37. Indirect (fixed) costs
    not affected by sales volume

    a. rent, taxes, interest on debt, insurance, depreciation
  38. direct (variable) flexible cost
    varies directly with sales (revenue)

    a. china, silverware, food
  39. semi-variable cost
    both a fixed and variable component

    a. labor costs
  40. sunk costs
    already incurred and cannot be recouped by a new decision or alternative.

    a. cost involved in studying merits of a new computer
  41. differential costs
    amount of increase or decrease in costs when you compare alternatives.

    a. difference in costs between two delivery system
  42. General ledger
    summary of all expenses and revenues for the month by category
  43. Profit and loss statement (income statement)
    shows operating results over a period of time

    also known as a revenue and expense statement
  44. Balance sheet
    • shows financial condition as of a particular date.
    • a. assets
    • b. liabilities

    Assets = liabilities + capital (equity)
  45. Liquidity ratios
    assess ability to meet short term debt
  46. net worth ratios
    assess ability to meet long term debt
  47. turnover ratios (asset management)
    inventory of turnover rate

    • cost of sales (food cost)
    • _____________________
    • average inventory cost
  48. inventory turnover rate
    measures how often an inventory is consumed and replenished. ( 2-4 times is desirable)

    • high ratio= limited inventory
    • low ratio= money tied up in stock
  49. Gross profit
    profit before expenses
  50. Net profit
    profit after all expenses deducted
  51. work simplification procedures
    to eliminate unnecessary part of the job and those that add no value ( i.e hand movements, steps taken

    increases productivity and decr. costs
  52. Pathway chart or flow diagram
    scale drawing showing path of a worker during a process
  53. operation charts
    movement of hands, reduces transportation and replan work areas.
  54. Process charts
    steps involved in process using symbols
  55. Cross charts
    efficiency of equipment placement, studies work motions, shows number of movements between pieces of equipment
  56. Marketing analysis and strategies
    process of identifying a need, assisting potential clients in recognizing that need and filling that need
  57. Marketing channel
    exchange of ownership: producer, processor, distributor, supplier, customer
  58. Marketing process and Plan steps
    • 1. IDENTIFY  a need  (niche)
    • 2. marketplace
    • 3. market segmentation- divide market into         groups based on needs
    • etc...
  59. Develop a marketing mix
    • 1.Product
    • 2. place
    • 3. price
    • 4. promotion
  60. Strategic marketing
    long term overall view of marketing in the organization in which resources are allocated and objectives set after defining the market
  61. Social marketing
    use of marketing principles to advance a social cause, idea or behavior
  62. Business marketing
    filling customers needs or desires
  63. SWOT
    Strengths, weakness, opportunities, threats
  64. Factor method
  65. Prime cost method
    considers raw food cost and direct labor
  66. Promotion Pricing
    done for short period for a sale or special price to increase sales during slow times
  67. Cost of profit pricing
    price the product to ensure a predetermined percentage of profit
  68. Management functions
    • Planning
    • Organizing
    • Directing/coordinating
    • Controlling
  69. PLANING function
    • Basic function of management, provides direction, policies, procedures, and
    • time span- long, short planning
  70. Strategic Planning
    focuses of decision not plans
  71. ORGANIZING function
    Identify tasks and activities, divide tasks into positions.

    Establish relationship among all other functions of management.
  72. Organizational Chart
    • shows how the employee fits into the organization.
    • a.positions and functions
    • b. lines of authority -solid lines
    • c. advisory positions- dotted lines
    • NOT SHOWN- degree of authority at each level, informal relationships
  73. Concentric model of organization
    • (Circular)
    • Improves representation of personnel relationships. Functions centered around individuals, not above and below.
  74. Master schedule
    serves as overall plan; days on and off, vacations; basis for developing weekly schedules
  75. Shift schedule
    staffing patterns for a particular operation; positions and hours worked, number or days worked per week, relief assignments
  76. Production Schedule
    time sequencing of events required to produce a meal; employee assignments and menu items; quantity to prepare and the timing
  77. Directing and coordinating function
    delegating to qualified personnel
  78. Halo Effect
    judge on most noticeable positive trait
  79. Leniency of error
    rate everyone higher then they deserve
  80. error of central tendency
    rate all as average
  81. Labor turnover rate
    uses number of NEW employees at end of period
  82. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
    determinants of behavior 

    basic needs/ human needs

    when basic needs are met, higher needs become motivators
  83. Hersberg's theory
    • motivation and maintenance approach
    • ( satisfiers/disatisfiers)
    • physical conditions, wages
  84. Satisfiers
    if present perceived as good
  85. disatisfiers
    if lacking perceived as negative and will interfere with work. Can prevent motivation from occuring
  86. McClelland's achievement-affiliation theory
    • 3 needs
    • 1.  achievement
    • 2. power
    • 3. affiliation
  87. MacGregor
    attitude of the manager towards employees has an impact on job performance
  88. MacGregor Theory X
    • People dislike work and will avoid if possible.
    • authoritarian, and work centered.
    • workers prefer control and pressure.
    • Directed by fear.
  89. MacGregor Theory Y
    • Work is as natural as play or rest.
    • Management should arrange conditions so workers can achieve goals by directing own efforts.
  90. Hawthorne Studies
    • If you involve people in the process, they become productive.
    • productivity increased by good treatment and work breaks.
    • Placebo effect
  91. Expectancy Theory- Beer
    Rewards serve as motivators under certain circumstance.
  92. Leadership styles
    • 1. Autocratic
    • 2. Consultative
    • 3. Bureaucratic
    • 4. Participative- workers involved in decision       making. uses quality circles of                      employees to meet and solve problems.
    • 5. Free rein (Laissez-faire)
  93. Blake and Mouton Leadership Grid
    Plots concern for people vs. concern for production
  94. Likert-management of conflict
    basic systems of organizational leadership
  95. 4 Basic systems of organizational leadership
    • 1. exploitive, autocratic (Job centered)
    • 2. Benevolent, autocratic (Job centered) 
    • 3. consultative- (employee centered)
    • 4. Participative - (employee centered) (most effective)
  96. Johari's window
    a. Analyzes interpersonal conflict; identifies interpersonal styles. To improve communication
  97. Human relations theory
    Employee participation in decision making

    Improves morale and productivity
  98. Theory Z (Ouchi)
    • The value of the company is the people. 
    • Everyone who will be affected by a decision is involved in making the decisions ( consensus decision-making)
  99. Systems approach
    • Two part system
    • a. an open system interacts with external forces (customers, suppliers etc.)

    b. a change in one part affects other parts
  100. Contingency or situational leadership
    • responds to EXTERNAL environment.
    • Results differ because situations differ.
    • Management must identify which techniques will work in a particular situation.
  101. Path goal Theory
    • Consider what motivates the individual
    • -Motivation to behave in a particular manner is the result of an expectation that a behavior will result in a particular goal and how strongly a person desires the goal.
  102. Scientific Management-TAYLOR
    • Work- centered- Workers must work fast and at max efficiency.
    • -structure work situation to minimize motivation needed.
    • -focus on physical aspects of the job and and find the best way of performing a task.
  103. Management by Objectives MBO -DRUCKER
    • -Type of democratic management that provides control from within.
    • -Establish performance goals with employees, gives higher incentives
    • -PARTICIPATIVE -leadership
  104. Transactional leadership
    • -engage in bargaining with followers
    • -leader and follower not in pursuit of common goal.
    • -leader tells employee what they need to do to obtain rewards and takes corrective action when employee fails to meet goals
  105. Transformational leadership
    • inspire followers to become motivated
    • cultivation of employee acceptance of group mission
  106. Organizational Change Theory
    • conditions necessary to change a department.
    • -leader recognizes need for change
    • -followers are shown that present situation does NOT meet their needs.
    • -Leader defines a vision that appeals to follower's needs and values.
    • Measure present performance against standard performance
    • 1. Establish standards
    • 2.Measure performance
    • 3. Compare to standard
    • 4. Take corrective action
  108. Types of Evaluation
    1. Outcome-oriented-ultimate indicator of quality health status of the client

    2. Process-oriented- did the process produce desired results
  109. Types of Evaluation Measurements
    • 1.Norm-referenced
    • 2. Criterion-referenced
    • 3. Comparative
  110. Norm-referenced
    Compares with others or with norm of group.
  111. Criterion-referenced
    Compare with an objective standard of what the learner is supposed to know.
  112. Comparative
    Examine characteristics or qualities to discover similarities or differences.
  113. Informational role-Monitor role
    Constantly searching for information
  114. Informational role-Disseminator
    Transmits info to subordinates
  115. Informational role-spokesman
    Transmits info to people inside and outside the organization
  116. Decision-making/Problem solving
    • Recognize/Analyze problem
    • determine solutions
    • gather data
    • choose solution
    • take action
    • follow up the action
  117. Nominal group technique-Delbecq
    • structured and controlled
    • authoritative leader
    • sit in horseshoe formation
    • silent generation of ideas by participants
    • -group RANKS items, vote for final decision
  118. Delphi techinique
    • 1. Designed to probe EXPERT minds in a series of interviews from which some CONSENSUS is sought
    • 2. Participants DO NOT MEET
  119. cause and effect (fish) diagram
    • -focus on different causes of problem categorize
    • -drawn to organize thoughts for analysis of a question
    • -technique to increase worker involvement in decision-making

  120. Pareto charts
    • Illustrates the relative importance of problems.
    • 1. problem that occurs more frequently
    • 2. 80-20 rule, 80% of a given outcome results from 20% of an input
  121. queuing theory-queue
    1. develops the relationship involved in waiting in line.

    • 2. analyzes flow of customers in cafeteria
    • -balance cost of waiting lines with cost of preventing wait lines through increased service.
  122. Integrative problem solving
    a. conflict is converted into a joint problem solving situation.

    b. parties openly try to find a solution they can all accept
  123. Reward power
    ability to reward another for carrying out an order.
  124. coercive power
    • punish another for not doing task
    • maintains minimum standard of performance
  125. Position (legitimate) power
    subordinate acknowledges that the influence has to right to exert influence
  126. expert power
    belief that influencer has some relevant expertise that the subordinate does not.
  127. Referent power (personality, charisma)
    based on desire to identify with or imitate the influencer
  128. PPR
    • Periodic performance review-
    • online assessment for all applicable standards performed by your hospital every 12 months. This is submitted along with corrective action plans for any standard evaluated as non-compliant.
  129. ESC
    Evidence of Standards Compliance
  130. POA
    Plan of Action
  131. MOS
    a numerical or other measure related to an audit that validates that an action was effective and sustained.
  132. RFI
    Requirement for Improvement
  133. TQM
    Total Quality Management
  134. TQM (Process and Implementation)
    involves continuous improvement of organizational processes, resulting in high quality products and services.
  135. TQM 3 elements
    • 1.Customer-true judge of quality
    • 2. Culture- Environment created that establishes quality as a top priority.
    • 3. Counting-Measurement of what constitutes a high quality service or product and what needs improvement
  136. TQM 
    PDCA cycle
    Plan, Do, Check, Act-Problem solving techniques.
  137. CQI
    • Continuous Quality Improvement-Integral part of TQM.
    • -emphasizes organization and systems rather than individuals. 
    • -ideal that systems and performance can always improve.
    • -Uses outcome assessment
  138. Process criteria
    • procedures used, assessment, documentation, distribution of food.
    • -if clinical-uses medical record
    • -must include time frame
  139. Outcome criteria
    • measures success or failure of process of care provided.
    • anthropometric, biomedical data
    • includes time frame
  140. RUMBA
    • Characteristics of criteria
    • Relevant, Understandable, Measurable, Behavioral, Achievable
  141. Indicators
    • Measuring tool that monitors and evaluates important aspects of patient care and management functions.
    • -serve as flags to direct attention to specific issues.
    • -not a direct measure of quality but describes events, complications or outcomes
  142. Rate-based indicator
    • comparative rate indicator
    • a. what will happen with the BEST care 
    • b. 95% of high risk patients are assessed within 24 hrs
    • c. thresholds- 1-99%
  143. Sentinel event indicator
    • serious event that requires further investigations each time it occurs; undesirable but avoidable
    • -0% food poisoning
    • -100% of oncology patients are fed within 5 days
  144. Nutrition Protocol
    • definition of how you deliver care and service
    • predetermined set of orders
  145. Table D' Hote
    A complete meal offered at a fixed priced
  146. Du Jour Menu
    "menu of the day" planned and written one day at a time
  147. Ala Carte Menu
    includes items priced separately and chosen by the customer
  148. FOB at shipping
    (free on bord) buyer assumes responsibility once food is on board
  149. COD
    cash on delivery. Payment is required at delivery
  150. Storage temp for all frozen foods except ice cream?
    0 deg
  151. Ice cream Storage temp
    6 to 10 deg
  152. Fresh meats/chicken, dairy, cut melons refrigerated processed foods Temp?
    40 deg or lower
  153. fresh shellfish, fresh eggs temp
    45 deg or lower
  154. fresh eggs
    received at 45 stored at 40 or lower
  155. All hot food temp
    140 deg
  156. Dry Storage areas
    50-70 deg with 50% humidity
  157. Humidity range for foods requiring refrigeration?
    80-95 % recommended
  158. Maximum Level (Mini-max system)
    is the number of units used during the order period plus the safety level
  159. Minimum level
    is the point to reorder
  160. safety level
    minimum stock required to be on hand
  161. Usage rate
    amount of product used per day per month
  162. Lead time
    time it takes to receive an item after placing order.
  163. Labor costs
  164. ABC method of inventory control
    classifies products according to their value.
  165. A- Class item
    most expensive. inventory kept low ( wine, lobster, meat)
  166. B-Class items
    lesser value, about 20% of food cost ( canned apricots)
  167. C-Class items
    lowest value (rice)
  168. Moist cooking techniques
    boiling, blanching, parboiling, simmering, poaching, steaming.
  169. Dry cooking techniques
    baking, roasting, sauteing, stir-frying, pan-frying, deep-frying, grilling, broiling.
  170. Convection cooking
    circulates air current. Faster cooking.
  171. Factors affecting BP
    • -BP varies by altitude. Low pressure@ high altitude, High pressure @ low altitude.
    • -BP drops with higher altitude
  172. SOL
    Solid-in-liquid. colloidal dispersion in liquid form ( gelatin before cooling)
  173. GEL
    liquid-in-solid, when a sol assumes a rigid form (cooled gelatin)
  174. Syneresis
    when liquid seeps from a gel ( meringue topping on pie)
  175. Paired Comparison Test
    two samples are judged and the difference between the two are determined.
  176. Triangle Test
    3 samples, two are identical. Judge must identify the identical samples. Useful when there are small differences between samples.
  177. Duo-Trio Test
    a control sample is identified. Two other samples must be compared to the control.
  178. Sterilization
    process used during canning to destroy organisms
  179. Clostridium Botulinum
    • prevalent in low acid environments such as canned foods, honey, garlic-in-oil mixtures
    • -diarrhea, vertigo, severe nervous system damage, respiratory failure, paralysis, 4-36 hr onset
  180. No. 6 Scoop
    2/3 cup
  181. No. 8 scoop
    1/2 cup
  182. No. 10 scoop
    3/8 cup
  183. No. 12 scoop
    1/3 cup
  184. No. 16 scoop
    1/4 cup
  185. No. 10 can
    6-7 lb 5 oz
  186. 1 cup
    16 Tablespoon
  187. 1 pint
    2 cups
  188. 1 quart
    2 pints
  189. 1 gallon
    4 quarts
  190. 1 tablespoon
    3 teaspoons
  191. Conventional Cook and Serve system
    items are help hot or cold until served. Production may take place on site or somewhere else.
  192. Commissary
    a centralized facility transports food to satellite areas for service
  193. Ready Prepared System
    items are purchased already cooked and chilled or cooked and frozen on site in preparation for reheating prior to service.
  194. Assembly serve
    items procured in a ready to serve form
  195. Cook Chill
    Food is prepared in advance and chilled, often for transport.
  196. Bacillus cereus
    • Diarrheal/emetic 1-15hr onset
    • Rice, starchy foods
  197. Anisakiasis
    • Fish, raw seafood
    • -Tingling in the throat, abdominal pain, vomiting and coughing small worms
  198. Campylobacter jejuni
    • Unpasteurized milk, raw poultry and meat
    • -Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, cramps, fever
    • 1-10 days onset
  199. Clostridium perfrigens
    • Cooked meat, poultry, reheated food, improperly cooled foods.
    • -Diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, 8-22 hr onset
  200. E. coli
    • Raw/under cooked ground beef ( cook to 155), milk or chicken. Contaminated water, unpasteurized juices, melons. 
    • -Cramps, diarrhea, fever, may be dysenteric, 2-6 days onset
  201. Giardia
    • Water, salads
    • -Fatigue, cramps, nausea, wt loss, gas
  202. Listeria monocytogenes
    • Prepared and chilled, ready to eat food, dairy,lunch meat
    • -headache, fever, diarrhea, meningitis, often affects fetus and prg women, 1-weeks onset
  203. Salmonella
    • Raw/under cooked poultry products, eggs
    • -fever diarrhea, cramps, chills, vomiting, systemic infection, dehydration 6-48 hrs onset
  204. Shigella
    • Protein-rich salads, moist mixed foods, some raw produce
    • -fever, diarrhea, may be dysenteric 1-7 days onset
  205. Staphylococcus aureus
    • Meat, poultry, ham, egg products
    • -nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cramps 1-7 hrs onset
  206. Streptococcus pyogenes
    • Raw milk, deviled eggs
    • -Fever, tonsillitis, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever 2-60hrs onset
  207. Trichinella spirallis
    • under cooked pork or wild game, ground meats 
    • -nausea, diarrhea, fever, thirst, sweating, chills, fatigue 2-28 days onset depending on # of larvae ingested
  208. Vibrio bacterias
    • Raw fish and shellfish
    • -Diarrhea, cramps, fever, headache, vomiting 4-96 hrs onset
  209. Yersinia enterocolitica
    • Meats, raw milk, poultry, tofu and non-chlorinated water
    • -various symptoms of gastroenteritis, may mimic appendicitis 2-7 days onset
  210. Prewash temp
  211. Wash temp
  212. Power rinse temp
  213. Final rinse temp
  214. Xerophthalmia
    Night blindness
  215. Hypovitaminosis
    cessation of bone growth, tooth or bone deformities, anemia, keratin in follices
  216. Vit A deficiency
    Xerophthalmia and hypovitaminosis
  217. Vit A toxicity
    Hypervitaminosis- dec clotting time, fatigue
  218. Vit D deficiency
    Rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults-bowed legs
  219. vit D toxicity
    Withdrawal of calcium from bones, calcification of kidneys
  220. Vit E deficiency
    • Red cell breakage, anemia; unlikely except in children with cystic fibrosis
    • alpha tocopherol most active form
  221. vit E toxicity
    interference with anticlotting meds
  222. Vit K deficiency
    Hemorrhaging, prolonged blood-clotting time
  223. Vit K toxicity
    Megadose interfere with anticoagulant drugs; RBC hemolysis, jaundice
  224. Vit C def
  225. Thiamin deficiency
    B1 ,Beriberi, common in alcoholics
  226. Riboflavin deficiency
    B2, Ariboflavinosis-cheilosis (fissures at corner of the mouth),sore magenta red tongue
  227. Niacin deficiency
    B3, Pellagra, common in low protein diets, disease of 4D -Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death
  228. Folate deficiency
    Macrocytic anemia
  229. Vit B12 deficiency
    Pernicious anemia (macrocytic anemia)
  230. Biotin
    seen with excessive consumption of raw eggs since they have a biotin blocker AVIDIN
  231. Iron deficiency
    • anemia-hypochromic, microcytic
    • Pica
  232. Ketonuria
    ketones in the urine due to fatty acid metabolism due to high levels of glucose in the blood of DM
  233. Glucosuria
    glucose in the urine
  234. Somogyi effect
    hypoglycemia followed by an episode of hyperglycemia
  235. Dawn phenomenon
    early morning hyperglycemia (between 4-9 am). eat more food at bedtime.
  236. Complications of DM
    • Retinopathy
    • Peripheral neuropathy
    • Autonomic neuropathy
    • Vascular disease
    • Gastropathy
    • Nephropathy.
  237. Galactosemia
    • inability to convert galactose into glucose.
    • -Treatment-eliminate galactose from diet
  238. PKU
    • amino acid phenylalanine cannot be metabolized to tyrosine.
    • -Treatment- foods are monitored
  239. Addison's disease ( adrinocortical insufficiency)
    • Atrophy of the adrenal cortex with a loss of hormone production. 
    • Treatment-high protein, moderate carb, high salt.
  240. Hyperthyroidism
    Over production of  thyroid hormone. Goiter. Treatment is medical not nutritional
  241. Kwashiorkor
    • prolonged protein insufficiency in the presence of adequate calories results in loss of visceral protein. Distended abdomen, fatty liver and failure to resist infections.
    • Treatment- High PRO, high KCAL
  242. Marasmus
    • Prolonged lack of calories and protein insufficiency results in loss of muscle and fat stores. Low wt, wasted muscles, reduced hormones and low body temp.
    • Treatment- High PRO, high KCAL
  243. Dumping syndrome
    • Food mass (especially simple carbs) enter the jejunum and cause cramping, a full feeling, weakness, dizzy nausea, vomiting a few hours after meal. 
    • Treatment- Five/six small meals, relatively high in fat to slow passage of food and high protein to rebuild tissue.
  244. IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
    -Medications interfere with nutrient metabolism. (Cholestyramine with fat-soluble Vit. , coticosteroids with calcium, and suslfasalizine with folate)

    • Treatment- Maintain adequate protein and kcal intake and vitamins. 
    • Complication-Fistulas, bowel perforation, obstruction and abscess.
  245. Ulcerative Colitis
    Chronic inflammation of the mucosa of the large intestine.
  246. Crohns disease
    Chronic inflammatory disease of distal ileum, colon and anorectal area.
  247. Cystic Fibrosis
    High PRO (30-35), high KCAL (200) with liberal fat and sodium.
  248. CHF
    • Congestive hear failure
    • -results in sodium and fluid retention
    • -sodium restricted diet and K+ replacement is necessary.
  249. Aldosterone
    sodium conserving hormone that operates in the renin-angiotensin mechanism to conserve sodium in exchange for potassium causing re-absorption of water to maintain body fluids.
  250. Glomerulonephritis
    • inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney.
    • -control fluid intake. Provide sufficient kcal and control protein, sodium.
  251. Nephritis
    • inflammation of the kidney.
    • -Provide adequate kcal. 70 high biologic value PRO to ensure positive nitrogen balance. Restrict PRO, sodium or potassium when there is edema, hyperkalemia or uremia.
  252. Uremia
    • toxic condition produced by the retention in blood of nitrogenous substances. Terminal manifestation of renal failure. 
    • -Provide adequate kcal and control PRO, fluid and electrolytes according to lab data and renal function.
  253. Nephrotic syndrome
    • set of symptoms applied to renal disease. edema, heavy albuminuria and proteinuria. 
    • -sufficient PRO (35) for + N balance. 3g Sodium to reduce edema
  254. Acute renal failure
    • Nutritional priorities- 
    • -Preserve body cell mass.
    • -Providing enough KCAL to permit maintenance of vital functions 
    • -Providing enough PRO to replace amino acids lost from catabolism and dialysis.
  255. Acid ash diet
    high in meat, poultry, fish fish, whole grains to promote acidity in urine
  256. Calcium Oxalate stone
    • accounts for most kidney stones.
    • -High Calcium diet limiting oxalate sources ( fruits, veg, cocoa, tea, beer)
  257. Metabolic acidosis
    • ketosis of diabetes
    • -increased respiration
    • -decreased hydrogen ions excretion
    • treat- correct bicarbonate level, combat hyperkalemia
  258. respiratory acidosis
    • low serum pH, high serum CO2.
    • Hyperventilation
    • -increased bicarbonate reabsorption
  259. Metabolic alkalosis
    • increased HCO3 and pH, Low Cl and K.
    • -decreased ventilation, renal bicarbonate, K excretion
    • -Treat-KCl, isotonic saline
  260. Respiratory alkalosis
    • increased pH,low pCO2,H2CO3
    • -Hyperventilation
    • -Bicarbonate excretion
  261. Tuberculosis
    hypermetabolic state diet should contain adequate kcals and liberal PRO
  262. Cirrhosis
    use liberal protein, high kcal that is high in vitamins and mod fat
  263. Hepatic encephalopathy
    • reduce protein and nutrients requiring hepatic processing. 
    • -Give lactulose to inhibit GI absorption of ammonia and other toxic nitrogenous sources.
  264. Pnacreatitis
    • NPO in acute phase with hydration. 
    • -progress at tolerated with low fat, frequent small feedings with med chain TG oil with pancreatic enzymes
  265. Epilepsy
    Ketogenic diet- VERY HIGH IN FAT used sometimes to treat
  266. CVA
    Cerebral vascular accident (stroke)

    -Treatm.- primarily preventive, BP control, dietary restrictions of cholesterol, SAT fats and sodium. Incr. fruits, veg, fish, and aspirin.
  267. VMA test
    urine test used to diagnose tumors in case of unexplained hypertension.
  268. Leanest cuts of meat
    loin and round
  269. Forms gelatin
  270. Elastin
    connective tissue unaffected by heat or moisture
  271. Primal cut
    also known as WHOLESALE
  272. Fabricated cuts
    also known as retail cuts
  273. Meat standards packaging labels include
    kind of meat, cut name and specific retail name
  274. Federal Meat Inspection Act
    • regulates interstate. 
    • -examines live animals
    • -Parts of animal susceptible to disease
    • -packing plant
  275. U.S Inspection Stamp for meats ensures
    • wholesomeness 
    • -does not relate quality or tenderness only that its fit for human consumption.
  276. Wholesome Meat Act
    made inspection mandatory
  277. Agency which implemented HACCP
  278. Quality rating of meats
    • voluntary
    • -Marbling, firmness, color and texture
  279. USDA Prime
    best meat
  280. USDA Select
  281. Color of meat is due to
    • pigment Myoglobin and Hemoglobin
    • -color indicates freshness
    • -When exposed to air meat is bright red
  282. Least tender cuts
    lower leg muscles, flank and neck
  283. Effect of Acid on meat
    makes meat more moist not tender
  284. Storage temp of meats
    • Fresh @ 41 or lower.
    • Frozen @ 0 or lower.
  285. Maillard Reaction
    • Causes a browning effect. 
    • -sugars+PRO+Heat= Browning
  286. PCBs
    Fish contaminant
  287. Fresh Poultry Storage Temp
    16-32 deg (deep chill method)
  288. White Stock
    Bones and veg in cold water, skim top.
  289. Brown Stock
    same as white but bones are browned first
  290. Baking soda
    • -Speeds tenderization. 
    • -In large amount makes beans mushy, destroy thiamin and soapy taste.
  291. Legume Grading
    USDA 1 (highest quality),2,3
  292. Aflotoxin
    Cancer causing agent produced from mold or fungi in beans
  293. Miso
    fermented soybeans and grains
  294. Tempeh
    soy-based aged meat substitute
  295. Soymilk
    soybeans ground with water. Little calcium unless fortified.
  296. Most seeds are low in amino acid
  297. Chesnuts
    only nuts that contain Vit C. Low fat and kcals
  298. Tahini
    ground sesame seeds. Have of calcium is bound by oxalates
  299. Egg white contains
    albumin, riboflavin, PRO
  300. egg yolk contains
    fat, cholesterol, vitamins, iron
  301. Egg grading
    AA, A, B
  302. Egg white coagulates at what temp
    Greater than 130
  303. whole eggs coagulate at what temp
  304. Function of eggs in baking and cooking
    Emulsification, structure, color, flavor, aeration,
  305. Components of milk
    • PRO- Casein, lactoglobin, albumin
    • CHO- Lactose
    • Fat- mainly TG
  306. Milk and other dairy lack
    iron and Vitamin C
  307. Buttermilk
    made from low-fat milk and lactic acid bacteria
  308. Evaporated milk
    60% of moisture removed
  309. Condensed milk
    has about half of moisture removed and sugar added.
  310. Filled milk
    fat replaced with veg oil
  311. Butter
    80% fat
  312. Acidophilus Milk
    has live cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus- part of human GI flora and produce vit B
  313. Rennin
    animal enzyme used to coagulate milk to make cheese
  314. Primary grains that feed the world
    Rice, wheat, corn
  315. Bran
    • hull or outer coating of the grain
    • -cellulose, hemicellulose, vitamins (thiamin, niacin, riboflavin)
  316. Endosperm
    • central portion of grain
    • -contains starch and protein
  317. Germ
    small part containing unsaturated fats, protein, iron and vitamins (thiamin, niacin, riboflavin)
  318. Short Grain Rice
    most starch, sticky and tender ( good for risotto)
  319. Medium Grain Rice
    firm when hot, sticky when cools
  320. Long Grain Rice
    grains separate easily, less amylopectin (branched  starch)
  321. Dried grain is found in two forms
    • -CORNMEAL ( for breads)
    • -Hominy or Polenta ( dried corn kernel)
  322. Cereal grains are deficient in
    lysine and tryptophan
  323. Tricale
    • higher protein and lower gluten than wheat
    • -high in lysine
  324. Enrichment
    restores nutrients lost during processing
  325. Fortification
    • Adds nutrients not originally found in product.
    • -such as with folic acid to reduce neural tube defect
  326. Phytic acid
    • contained in whole grain products. 
    • -Binds calcium and iron and reduces absorption.
  327. Gluten
    • traps CO2  as it forms during leavening and gives volume and structure.
    • -Water and Fat prevent gluten from forming
  328. Durum Wheat
    high gluten content used for pastas
  329. Softer summer wheat
    weak gluten and used for cake flour
  330. Flour
    Provides structure
  331. Liquid
    • releases  CO2 from powder and activates yeast
    • -gelatinizes starch, moistens, dissolves sugar and salt.
  332. Fat
    tenderizes, improves texture and aids in levening
  333. Sugar
    • flavors, browns and tenderizes
    • -softens gluten and raises the coagulation point of eggs
  334. Eggs
    emulsifying, color, flavor, leavening agent
  335. Leavening
    • incorporates air, CO2 or steam.
    • -air leavening is done by whipping, beating, sifting.
  336. CO2
    • added by chemical reactions or microorganisms
    • -adding an acid and a soda will release CO2
  337. Steam leavening
    • Products have high water content and use high heat
    • -Yeast produces CO2
  338. Muffin problems caused by
    • over mixing- Tunnels, peaked top, pale slick crust
    • under mixing (undissolved soda)- low volume, flat top, brown specs
  339. Cake problems
    • 1. Tough crust- too little fat or sugar
    • 2. Hump in middle- oven too hot
    • 3. uneven texture- incomplete mixing
    • 4. Bitter flavor- too little cooking time, or too much baking powder
  340. Produces clear thickening
  341. Produces organic gels
  342. Modified starch
    used to thicken frozen products, processed foods and baby foods
  343. Gelatinization
    what happens to starch when mixed with water, granules swell
  344. Dextrinization
    • partial starch hydrolysis caused by an acid, heat and enzymes. Dextrins are release as in bread making. 
    • -Dextrins thicken less than most starch
  345. Solanine
    A toxin release from potatoes from exposure to light
  346. When cooking green vegetables
    leave uncovered
  347. When cooking red vegetables
    cover to preserve color
  348. To release sulfur compounds from veg
    cook uncovered
  349. Ethylene gas
    Causes ripening of fruits
  350. Sulfur dioxide (Sulfites)
    • used to prevent browning, color or flavor changes of products such as dried fruits or wines
    • -treating fresh produced is banned. Must be indicated on other products label.
  351. Chlorophyl
    • Fat soluble pigment in F/V
    • -Green
    • -Magnesium is the center of the porphyrin ring
    • -replaced with hydrogen, dulls color in an acid.
  352. Carotenoids
    • Fat soluble pigment
    • -Carotenes
    • -Xanthophylls
    • -Retain color when heated or acid
  353. Flavonoids
    • Water soluble
    • -Anthocyanin-blue-red, purple
    • -Anthoxanthin-Colorless, pale yellow
    • -Phenols or tannins- clear, white, brown
    • -an acid will prevent color change
  354. Winterization
    Produces oils that will stay clear when solid
  355. Interesterification
    Makes fat less coarse and grainy such as lard
  356. Antioxidants
    added to fats to prevent rancidity
  357. BHA and BHT
    Antioxidants added to prevent lipid oxidation
  358. Highest temp for cooking fat
  359. Fatty Acids in fat
    will lower the smoke point
  360. fat suspended in large amount of water
    milk, cream, salad dressing
  361. Water droplets suspended in large amounts of fat
    diet margarine
  362. air trapped as an emulsion in fat
    butter cream icing, whipped butter
  363. sweetener used in candy making
    sucrose- forms crystals
  364. Main sugars in Honey
    Fructose and Glusoce
  365. Anti-caking agents
    calcium silicate, iron ammonium citrate, silicon dioxide, sorbitol
  366. Antimicrobial agents
    Calcium proponate, sulfur dioxide
  367. Bleaching and Maturing agents
    hydrogen peroxide
  368. Emulsifiers
    Lecithin, mono and diglycerides
  369. Flavors and flavor enhancers
    MSG, hydrolyzed vegetable proteins
  370. Gelling agents
    gelatin, pectin
  371. Humectants
    glycerol monosterate, propylene glycol
  372. Leavening agents
    yeast, baking powder
  373. Stabilizers
    pectins, guar gum, xanthan gum, gelatin, carrageenen
  374. Monosaccharides
    • -Glucose
    • -Fructose (levulose)
    • -Galactose ( from lactose digestion)
  375. Dextrose
    is glucose from the hydrolysis of cornstarch
  376. Disaccharides
    • Sucrose
    • Lactose
    • maltose
  377. Polysaccs
    • Glycogen-Storage CHO in the body
    • Starch-Storage CHO in plants
    • Dextrins-intermediates of starch hydrolysis
    • Fiber-structural carb
  378. Soluble fibers
    • Pectin
    • gums
  379. insoluble fibers
    • celullose
    • hemicellulose
    • lignin
  380. Essential amino acids
    • Histadine
    • Isoleucine
    • Leucine
    • Lysine
    • Methionine
    • phenylalanine
    • Threonine
    • Tryptophan
    • Valine
  381. Transamination
    • transfer of one amino group from one compound to the next
    • -Requires Vit B6
  382. Deamination
    • Removal of an amino group from an amino acid
    • -the liver convert amino acids into non-nitrogen compounds to be used for energy
  383. High sources of Polyunsaturated oils (high to low)
    • -Safflower
    • -sunflower
    • -Corn oil
    • -Soybean
    • -Peanut oil
  384. highest source of monounsaturated oil (high to low)
    • -Olive oil
    • -Canola
  385. highest source of Saturated oil (high to low)
    • -Coconut 
    • -Butterfat
    • -Palm
  386. cholesterol is hydrolyzed by
    pancreatic esterase
  387. all the carbons in cholesterol come from
    acetyl coA
  388. cholesterol is a precursor of
    hormones, vit D, glucocorticoids, estrogen,androgens, progestins
  389. reduced form of iron
  390. What is required for the hydroxylation of cholesterol for bile acid synthesis
    Vitamin C
  391. Biotin
    Involved in CHO and lipid metabolism
  392. Vitamin C
    Involved in protein, neurotransmitter and hormone metabolism
  393. Cobolamin
    • B12
    • -involved with folate in the synthesis of DNA/RNA
    • -myelin sheet of nerves
    • -Fat, CHO metabolism
    • -RBC maturation
    • -Keeps folate in its active form
  394. Intrinsic Factor
    Necessary for B12 absorption
  395. Folate
    -needed for the synthesis and catabolism of amino acids
  396. Niacin
    • Nicotinic acid
    • -NAD/NADP (NADH/NADPH reduced forms)- needed for energy production in krebs cycle, CHO oxydation, fatty acid synthesis
  397. Niacin can be synthesized from what amino acid
  398. Pantothenic acid
    • Constituent of Coenzyme A (CoA)
    • -CoA needed for fatty acid synthesis.
    • -oxidation of CHO, PRO, and fat for energy.
    • -Utilization depend on folate and biotin
  399. Riboflavin
    necessasy for the conversion of B6, Folate, Niacin and Vit K to their active forms
  400. Thiamin
    • -regulates muscle tone of GI tract.
    • -Co enzyme is CHO metabolism, decarboxylation of keto acid
    • -transketolase reaction in pentose shunt.
  401. Highest concentration of thiamin
    lean pork, ham, Brazil nut
  402. Vitamin B6
    required for amino acid metabolism and conversion niacin to tryptophan
  403. Calciferol
    • Vit D
    • -promotes mineralization of bones by promoting absorption of calcium. 
    • -Increases the absorption of calcium by the kidney and maintains normal blood levels of calcium
  404. Conversion of Calciferol when skin exposed to sunligh
    • natural hormone in the skin
    • 7-dihydry vitamin ----> Cholecalciferol when to sunlight
  405. Plant form of Vit D
  406. Retinol
    • Vit A
    • -Maintains integrity of skin and epithelial tissue, required for night vision and growth.
    • -Regulates structure/function of cellular/subcellular  membranes.
    • -Bone/tooth formation, and plays role in immune reactions.
  407. UL for vit A
  408. Transport form of Vit A
  409. Active form of Vitamin A
  410. Vit A stored in the liver as
    an ester, vitamin A acetate
  411. Tocopherol
    • Vit E
    • -protect membranes and RBC from oxidative damage or breakdown by inactivating free radicals.
    • -oxidative protection of Vit A
    • -protects RBC WBC and improves immune response
  412. Vitamin K
    -required for the syntheiss of blood clotting factors such as prothrombin ond other proteins
  413. Phylloquinone
    Found in green plants
  414. Menaquinone
    formed by bacterial action in the GI tract
  415. Menadione
    Synthetic form and most biologically reactive
  416. Calcium
    • necessary for blood coagulation, muscle function, transmission of nerve impulses, regulation of cell permeability.
    • -Calcium homeostasis- if blood Ca levels fall, vit D, parathrome and calcitonin aid in regulation.
  417. Cl, Na, K
    aid in regulation of fluid balance, acid/base balance and cell membrane transfer
  418. Chromium
    • makes insulin action more effective and aids in glucose homeostasis.
    • -role in CHO and fat metabolism
  419. Copper
    • -part of enzymes necessary for RBC syntheis
    • -required for iron absorption in the form of hemoglobin.
  420. Fluoride
    prevents dental carries by improving teeth and bone strength
  421. Iodine
    -synthesis of thyroxine in the thyroid gland
  422. thyroxine
    hormone that regulates cellular oxidation and basal metabolism
  423. In foods, iron is found in what form
  424. iron is stored as
  425. Iron tranport
  426. Iron
    • component of heme
    • -enables tissues to utilize oxygen and eliminate CO2
    • -required for cellular oxidation
  427. Magnesium
    • stabilizes structure of ATP
    • -helps maintain muscle contractibility
    • -required for fatty acid , nucleic acid, and protein synthesis
  428. Phosphorus
    • component of ATP, DNA, RNA, B vit coenzymes, lipoproteins and buffers.
    • -aids in transport of fatty acids, absorption of glucose and glycerol thru phosphorylation.
    • -Major part of buffer system, excretion of H ions
  429. Selenium
    cofactor in glutathione peroxidase
  430. glutathione peroxidase
    removes hydrogen peroxide and prevent free radical formation.
  431. Zinc
    • needed for DNA, RNA synthesis
    • -CHO, PRO, alcohol metabolism
    • -for energy, growth, wound healing wounds, immune response
    • -constituent of enzymes and insulin
  432. Water needs for healthy adults
    1.5-2 liters of water/day
  433. Human milk protein content
    • 60% whey
    • 40% casein
  434. Pre-pregnancy weight gain
    • 1. Normal weight- 25-35lbs
    • 2. Underweight- 28-40 lbs
    • 3. Overweight- 15-25 lbs

    obese should gain at least 15lbs
  435. Digestion of CHO in the stomach
    • Gastric secretions
    • 1. HCl
    • 2. Gastric lipase
    • 3. Mucus
    • 4. intrinsic factor
    • 5. Gastrin
  436. Digestions of PRO in stomach
    • Pepsin
    • HCl
  437. Digestion of CHO in small intestine
    Pancreatic amylase, maltase, sucrase, lactase
  438. Digestion of PRO in small intestine
    Pancreatic and intestinal protease
  439. Digestion of FAT in small intestine
    Bile, pancreatic lipase
  440. Digestion in Large Intestines
    intestinal bacteria produce Vit K and absorbed here. Water absorption
  441. Active Transport
    • cell concentration > lumen
    • -Glucose and amino acids pumped thru membrane this way
  442. Diffusion
    • process of free transfer of substances across membrane to reach equilibrium.
    • Sodium follows water passively
  443. Facilitated Diffusion
    movement of nutrients across membrane from high to low concentration
  444. Carrier mediated diffusion
    a carrier shuttles nutrients across membrane
  445. Pinocytosis
    membrane engulfs particles. some whole proteins enter this way.
  446. Glycolysis
    • anaerobic stage of glucose metabolism
    • -cell cytoplasm
    • -glucose--> pyruvic acid
    • -needs 2 ATP, 4 ATP produced.
    • -Pyruvic acid--> lactate--> bloodstream
  447. TCA/KREBS cycle
    • -mitochondria
    • -6 CO2 molecules produced
    • -needs niacin, riboflavin, thiamin
  448. Oxidative phosphorylation
    • via the electron transport system
    • -ADP--->ATP
  449. Urea cycle
    • synthesizes urea from deanimation of amino acids. 
    • CO2 +NH3----> ARGININE
    • -Process requires ATP
  450. Oxidation
    • addition of O2, removal of H+, or loss of electrons
    • -requires energy
  451. Reduction
    Gain of electron
  452. oxidation/reduction
    catalyzed by oxidoreductase
  453. Insulin
    • -secreted by beta cell of pancreass
    • -Lower BS
    • -Inhibits gluconeogenesis
  454. Glucagon
    • Produced by alpha cell in islets of lengerhans
    • -hyperglycemic -glycogenolytic factor
    • -Increases BS
  455. Epinephrine
    • Adrenaline
    • -raises BS
    • -raises BS
    • -Regulates BMR and oxygen consumption
  457. GH and ACTH
    • secreted by anterior pituitary gland 
    • -raise BS by actin as insulin antagonist
  458. Serotonin
    release in response to nutrient consumption and produce a feeling of satiety.
  459. Gluconeogenesis
    glucose from non-CHO courses (pyruvate)
  460. Glycogenolysis
    breakdown of glycogen to glucose