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National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)
- 1.Right to organize and join labor unions
- 2. Gave union the right to be the bargaining agent.
- 3.Created the NLRB-listens to unfair labor practice.
Taft Harley Labor Act ( Labor Management)
- 1. Outlawed the closed shop
- 2. Government can obtain injunction against strikes that endanger national health or safety
- 3. Limited union shop to 1 year
- 4. specified unfair labor practices of the union
Landrum-Griffin (Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act)
Bill of rights for union members
Fair Labor Standards Act
- 1. sets minimum wage
- 2. Overtime must be paid time and one-half
- 3. child labor laws regulates work hrs.
- -16/17 yr can work in non-hazard
- -in food service can handle knives only if in related program
Family and Medical Leave Act
- 1. If >50 worker
- -Up to 12 workweeks of unpaid, job protected leave during any 12 months for birth, adoption, to care for immediate family member
- 2. equal job, not same job guaranteed.
Americans with disabilities Act
- 1. If >15 workers
- 2. must provide reasonable accommodations
- 3. "essential" job functions must be specified
- Reflects required skills and responsibilities.
- -Orientation, training,
- 1. Duties involved, conditions, qualifications
- 2. no detailed info on what to do or time involved
hour-by-hour, training, tasks and time
What to do and how to do it-no time limits
more similar tasks to alleviate boredom
- minimizes personal biases
- same info for all
- checklist of pre-planned strategy
- more participation
- no checklist
- " tell me about your last job"
Payment required by law to ensure income in event of unemployment, injury or death
benefits or pay for time not worked
life and health insurance
deduction of union dues from pay
must join union
can join union or not
must be member of union first
all workers must pay agency fee, but are not required to join
Right to work law
Illegal to fire an employee who refuses to join a union even if contract has a union shop clause
protection against unfair union practices
Cannot refuse to bargain collectively with employer, engage in secondary boycotts, charge excessive fees, or cause an employer to pay for services not performed.
an employee who represents fellow employee as the union representative (not paid extra for this)
one person represents a group of people to bargain with the employer
if bargaining fails?
- arbitration- hearing to dissolve a dispute during an impasse; decision usually binding (FINAL STEP IN BARGAINING)
court order to prevent someone from doing something
Steps taken to correct undesirable behavior
- 1. Oral warning (temp in record)
- 2. written warning (permanent)
- 3. suspension (w/o pay) (permanent)
- 4. dismissal
forecast revenue and expenses then budget
projects revenues and expenses, showing inflow and output of cash
plant facilities, equipment, cost of improvements and repairs
Traditional (incremental) line item budget
- uses existing budget as a base and project changes for the ensuing year in relation to the current budget
- b. usually begins with this year's expenses plus an inflation factor
- c. control oriented
- a.NOT this year's expenses plus inflation factor
- b. begins at zero. must justify each expense
- ex PPBS-Planning, programming, budgeting system
- c. planning oriented
adjust to various levels of operation with varying levels of sales or revenue
ex. closing for renovation
details what it costs to perform an activity such as supervise the cafeteria.
Indirect (fixed) costs
not affected by sales volume
a. rent, taxes, interest on debt, insurance, depreciation
direct (variable) flexible cost
varies directly with sales (revenue)
a. china, silverware, food
both a fixed and variable component
a. labor costs
already incurred and cannot be recouped by a new decision or alternative.
a. cost involved in studying merits of a new computer
amount of increase or decrease in costs when you compare alternatives.
a. difference in costs between two delivery system
summary of all expenses and revenues for the month by category
Profit and loss statement (income statement)
shows operating results over a period of time
also known as a revenue and expense statement
- shows financial condition as of a particular date.
- a. assets
- b. liabilities
Assets = liabilities + capital (equity)
assess ability to meet short term debt
net worth ratios
assess ability to meet long term debt
turnover ratios (asset management)
inventory of turnover rate
- cost of sales (food cost)
- average inventory cost
inventory turnover rate
measures how often an inventory is consumed and replenished. ( 2-4 times is desirable)
- high ratio= limited inventory
- low ratio= money tied up in stock
profit before expenses
profit after all expenses deducted
work simplification procedures
to eliminate unnecessary part of the job and those that add no value ( i.e hand movements, steps taken
increases productivity and decr. costs
Pathway chart or flow diagram
scale drawing showing path of a worker during a process
movement of hands, reduces transportation and replan work areas.
steps involved in process using symbols
efficiency of equipment placement, studies work motions, shows number of movements between pieces of equipment
Marketing analysis and strategies
process of identifying a need, assisting potential clients in recognizing that need and filling that need
exchange of ownership: producer, processor, distributor, supplier, customer
Marketing process and Plan steps
- 1. IDENTIFY a need (niche)
- 2. marketplace
- 3. market segmentation- divide market into groups based on needs
Develop a marketing mix
- 2. place
- 3. price
- 4. promotion
long term overall view of marketing in the organization in which resources are allocated and objectives set after defining the market
use of marketing principles to advance a social cause, idea or behavior
filling customers needs or desires
Strengths, weakness, opportunities, threats
Prime cost method
considers raw food cost and direct labor
done for short period for a sale or special price to increase sales during slow times
Cost of profit pricing
price the product to ensure a predetermined percentage of profit
- Basic function of management, provides direction, policies, procedures, and
- time span- long, short planning
focuses of decision not plans
Identify tasks and activities, divide tasks into positions.
Establish relationship among all other functions of management.
- shows how the employee fits into the organization.
- a.positions and functions
- b. lines of authority -solid lines
- c. advisory positions- dotted lines
- NOT SHOWN- degree of authority at each level, informal relationships
Concentric model of organization
- Improves representation of personnel relationships. Functions centered around individuals, not above and below.
serves as overall plan; days on and off, vacations; basis for developing weekly schedules
staffing patterns for a particular operation; positions and hours worked, number or days worked per week, relief assignments
time sequencing of events required to produce a meal; employee assignments and menu items; quantity to prepare and the timing
Directing and coordinating function
delegating to qualified personnel
judge on most noticeable positive trait
Leniency of error
rate everyone higher then they deserve
error of central tendency
rate all as average
Labor turnover rate
uses number of NEW employees at end of period
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
determinants of behavior
basic needs/ human needs
when basic needs are met, higher needs become motivators
- motivation and maintenance approach
- ( satisfiers/disatisfiers)
- physical conditions, wages
if present perceived as good
if lacking perceived as negative and will interfere with work. Can prevent motivation from occuring
McClelland's achievement-affiliation theory
- 3 needs
- 1. achievement
- 2. power
- 3. affiliation
attitude of the manager towards employees has an impact on job performance
MacGregor Theory X
- People dislike work and will avoid if possible.
- authoritarian, and work centered.
- workers prefer control and pressure.
- Directed by fear.
MacGregor Theory Y
- Work is as natural as play or rest.
- Management should arrange conditions so workers can achieve goals by directing own efforts.
- If you involve people in the process, they become productive.
- productivity increased by good treatment and work breaks.
- Placebo effect
Expectancy Theory- Beer
Rewards serve as motivators under certain circumstance.
- 1. Autocratic
- 2. Consultative
- 3. Bureaucratic
- 4. Participative- workers involved in decision making. uses quality circles of employees to meet and solve problems.
- 5. Free rein (Laissez-faire)
Blake and Mouton Leadership Grid
Plots concern for people vs. concern for production
Likert-management of conflict
basic systems of organizational leadership
4 Basic systems of organizational leadership
- 1. exploitive, autocratic (Job centered)
- 2. Benevolent, autocratic (Job centered)
- 3. consultative- (employee centered)
- 4. Participative - (employee centered) (most effective)
a. Analyzes interpersonal conflict; identifies interpersonal styles. To improve communication
Human relations theory
Employee participation in decision making
Improves morale and productivity
Theory Z (Ouchi)
- The value of the company is the people.
- Everyone who will be affected by a decision is involved in making the decisions ( consensus decision-making)
- Two part system
- a. an open system interacts with external forces (customers, suppliers etc.)
b. a change in one part affects other parts
Contingency or situational leadership
- responds to EXTERNAL environment.
- Results differ because situations differ.
- Management must identify which techniques will work in a particular situation.
Path goal Theory
- Consider what motivates the individual
- -Motivation to behave in a particular manner is the result of an expectation that a behavior will result in a particular goal and how strongly a person desires the goal.
- Work- centered- Workers must work fast and at max efficiency.
- -structure work situation to minimize motivation needed.
- -focus on physical aspects of the job and and find the best way of performing a task.
Management by Objectives MBO -DRUCKER
- -Type of democratic management that provides control from within.
- -Establish performance goals with employees, gives higher incentives
- -PARTICIPATIVE -leadership
- -engage in bargaining with followers
- -leader and follower not in pursuit of common goal.
- -leader tells employee what they need to do to obtain rewards and takes corrective action when employee fails to meet goals
- inspire followers to become motivated
- cultivation of employee acceptance of group mission
Organizational Change Theory
- conditions necessary to change a department.
- -leader recognizes need for change
- -followers are shown that present situation does NOT meet their needs.
- -Leader defines a vision that appeals to follower's needs and values.
- Measure present performance against standard performance
- 1. Establish standards
- 2.Measure performance
- 3. Compare to standard
- 4. Take corrective action
Types of Evaluation
1. Outcome-oriented-ultimate indicator of quality health status of the client
2. Process-oriented- did the process produce desired results
Types of Evaluation Measurements
- 2. Criterion-referenced
- 3. Comparative
Compares with others or with norm of group.
Compare with an objective standard of what the learner is supposed to know.
Examine characteristics or qualities to discover similarities or differences.
Informational role-Monitor role
Constantly searching for information
Transmits info to subordinates
Transmits info to people inside and outside the organization
- Recognize/Analyze problem
- determine solutions
- gather data
- choose solution
- take action
- follow up the action
Nominal group technique-Delbecq
- structured and controlled
- authoritative leader
- sit in horseshoe formation
- silent generation of ideas by participants
- -group RANKS items, vote for final decision
- 1. Designed to probe EXPERT minds in a series of interviews from which some CONSENSUS is sought
- 2. Participants DO NOT MEET
cause and effect (fish) diagram
- -focus on different causes of problem categorize
- -drawn to organize thoughts for analysis of a question
- -technique to increase worker involvement in decision-making
- Illustrates the relative importance of problems.
- 1. problem that occurs more frequently
- 2. 80-20 rule, 80% of a given outcome results from 20% of an input
1. develops the relationship involved in waiting in line.
- 2. analyzes flow of customers in cafeteria
- -balance cost of waiting lines with cost of preventing wait lines through increased service.
Integrative problem solving
a. conflict is converted into a joint problem solving situation.
b. parties openly try to find a solution they can all accept
ability to reward another for carrying out an order.
- punish another for not doing task
- maintains minimum standard of performance
Position (legitimate) power
subordinate acknowledges that the influence has to right to exert influence
belief that influencer has some relevant expertise that the subordinate does not.
Referent power (personality, charisma)
based on desire to identify with or imitate the influencer
- Periodic performance review-
- online assessment for all applicable standards performed by your hospital every 12 months. This is submitted along with corrective action plans for any standard evaluated as non-compliant.
Evidence of Standards Compliance
a numerical or other measure related to an audit that validates that an action was effective and sustained.
Requirement for Improvement
Total Quality Management
TQM (Process and Implementation)
involves continuous improvement of organizational processes, resulting in high quality products and services.
TQM 3 elements
- 1.Customer-true judge of quality
- 2. Culture- Environment created that establishes quality as a top priority.
- 3. Counting-Measurement of what constitutes a high quality service or product and what needs improvement
Plan, Do, Check, Act-Problem solving techniques.
- Continuous Quality Improvement-Integral part of TQM.
- -emphasizes organization and systems rather than individuals.
- -ideal that systems and performance can always improve.
- -Uses outcome assessment
- procedures used, assessment, documentation, distribution of food.
- -if clinical-uses medical record
- -must include time frame
- measures success or failure of process of care provided.
- anthropometric, biomedical data
- includes time frame
- Characteristics of criteria
- Relevant, Understandable, Measurable, Behavioral, Achievable
- Measuring tool that monitors and evaluates important aspects of patient care and management functions.
- -serve as flags to direct attention to specific issues.
- -not a direct measure of quality but describes events, complications or outcomes
- comparative rate indicator
- a. what will happen with the BEST care
- b. 95% of high risk patients are assessed within 24 hrs
- c. thresholds- 1-99%
Sentinel event indicator
- serious event that requires further investigations each time it occurs; undesirable but avoidable
- -0% food poisoning
- -100% of oncology patients are fed within 5 days
- definition of how you deliver care and service
- predetermined set of orders
Table D' Hote
A complete meal offered at a fixed priced
Du Jour Menu
"menu of the day" planned and written one day at a time
Ala Carte Menu
includes items priced separately and chosen by the customer
FOB at shipping
(free on bord) buyer assumes responsibility once food is on board
cash on delivery. Payment is required at delivery
Storage temp for all frozen foods except ice cream?
Ice cream Storage temp
6 to 10 deg
Fresh meats/chicken, dairy, cut melons refrigerated processed foods Temp?
40 deg or lower
fresh shellfish, fresh eggs temp
45 deg or lower
received at 45 stored at 40 or lower
All hot food temp
Dry Storage areas
50-70 deg with 50% humidity
Humidity range for foods requiring refrigeration?
80-95 % recommended
Maximum Level (Mini-max system)
is the number of units used during the order period plus the safety level
is the point to reorder
minimum stock required to be on hand
amount of product used per day per month
time it takes to receive an item after placing order.
ABC method of inventory control
classifies products according to their value.
A- Class item
most expensive. inventory kept low ( wine, lobster, meat)
lesser value, about 20% of food cost ( canned apricots)
lowest value (rice)
Moist cooking techniques
boiling, blanching, parboiling, simmering, poaching, steaming.
Dry cooking techniques
baking, roasting, sauteing, stir-frying, pan-frying, deep-frying, grilling, broiling.
circulates air current. Faster cooking.
Factors affecting BP
- -BP varies by altitude. Low pressure@ high altitude, High pressure @ low altitude.
- -BP drops with higher altitude
Solid-in-liquid. colloidal dispersion in liquid form ( gelatin before cooling)
liquid-in-solid, when a sol assumes a rigid form (cooled gelatin)
when liquid seeps from a gel ( meringue topping on pie)
Paired Comparison Test
two samples are judged and the difference between the two are determined.
3 samples, two are identical. Judge must identify the identical samples. Useful when there are small differences between samples.
a control sample is identified. Two other samples must be compared to the control.
process used during canning to destroy organisms
- prevalent in low acid environments such as canned foods, honey, garlic-in-oil mixtures
- -diarrhea, vertigo, severe nervous system damage, respiratory failure, paralysis, 4-36 hr onset
Conventional Cook and Serve system
items are help hot or cold until served. Production may take place on site or somewhere else.
a centralized facility transports food to satellite areas for service
Ready Prepared System
items are purchased already cooked and chilled or cooked and frozen on site in preparation for reheating prior to service.
items procured in a ready to serve form
Food is prepared in advance and chilled, often for transport.
- Diarrheal/emetic 1-15hr onset
- Rice, starchy foods
- Fish, raw seafood
- -Tingling in the throat, abdominal pain, vomiting and coughing small worms
- Unpasteurized milk, raw poultry and meat
- -Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, cramps, fever
- 1-10 days onset
- Cooked meat, poultry, reheated food, improperly cooled foods.
- -Diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, 8-22 hr onset
- Raw/under cooked ground beef ( cook to 155), milk or chicken. Contaminated water, unpasteurized juices, melons.
- -Cramps, diarrhea, fever, may be dysenteric, 2-6 days onset
- Water, salads
- -Fatigue, cramps, nausea, wt loss, gas
- Prepared and chilled, ready to eat food, dairy,lunch meat
- -headache, fever, diarrhea, meningitis, often affects fetus and prg women, 1-weeks onset
- Raw/under cooked poultry products, eggs
- -fever diarrhea, cramps, chills, vomiting, systemic infection, dehydration 6-48 hrs onset
- Protein-rich salads, moist mixed foods, some raw produce
- -fever, diarrhea, may be dysenteric 1-7 days onset
- Meat, poultry, ham, egg products
- -nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cramps 1-7 hrs onset
- Raw milk, deviled eggs
- -Fever, tonsillitis, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever 2-60hrs onset
- under cooked pork or wild game, ground meats
- -nausea, diarrhea, fever, thirst, sweating, chills, fatigue 2-28 days onset depending on # of larvae ingested
- Raw fish and shellfish
- -Diarrhea, cramps, fever, headache, vomiting 4-96 hrs onset
- Meats, raw milk, poultry, tofu and non-chlorinated water
- -various symptoms of gastroenteritis, may mimic appendicitis 2-7 days onset
cessation of bone growth, tooth or bone deformities, anemia, keratin in follices
Vit A deficiency
Xerophthalmia and hypovitaminosis
Vit A toxicity
Hypervitaminosis- dec clotting time, fatigue
Vit D deficiency
Rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults-bowed legs
vit D toxicity
Withdrawal of calcium from bones, calcification of kidneys
Vit E deficiency
- Red cell breakage, anemia; unlikely except in children with cystic fibrosis
- alpha tocopherol most active form
vit E toxicity
interference with anticlotting meds
Vit K deficiency
Hemorrhaging, prolonged blood-clotting time
Vit K toxicity
Megadose interfere with anticoagulant drugs; RBC hemolysis, jaundice
B1 ,Beriberi, common in alcoholics
B2, Ariboflavinosis-cheilosis (fissures at corner of the mouth),sore magenta red tongue
B3, Pellagra, common in low protein diets, disease of 4D -Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death
Vit B12 deficiency
Pernicious anemia (macrocytic anemia)
seen with excessive consumption of raw eggs since they have a biotin blocker AVIDIN
- anemia-hypochromic, microcytic
ketones in the urine due to fatty acid metabolism due to high levels of glucose in the blood of DM
glucose in the urine
hypoglycemia followed by an episode of hyperglycemia
early morning hyperglycemia (between 4-9 am). eat more food at bedtime.
Complications of DM
- Peripheral neuropathy
- Autonomic neuropathy
- Vascular disease
- inability to convert galactose into glucose.
- -Treatment-eliminate galactose from diet
- amino acid phenylalanine cannot be metabolized to tyrosine.
- -Treatment- foods are monitored
Addison's disease ( adrinocortical insufficiency)
- Atrophy of the adrenal cortex with a loss of hormone production.
- Treatment-high protein, moderate carb, high salt.
Over production of thyroid hormone. Goiter. Treatment is medical not nutritional
- prolonged protein insufficiency in the presence of adequate calories results in loss of visceral protein. Distended abdomen, fatty liver and failure to resist infections.
- Treatment- High PRO, high KCAL
- Prolonged lack of calories and protein insufficiency results in loss of muscle and fat stores. Low wt, wasted muscles, reduced hormones and low body temp.
- Treatment- High PRO, high KCAL
- Food mass (especially simple carbs) enter the jejunum and cause cramping, a full feeling, weakness, dizzy nausea, vomiting a few hours after meal.
- Treatment- Five/six small meals, relatively high in fat to slow passage of food and high protein to rebuild tissue.
IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
-Medications interfere with nutrient metabolism. (Cholestyramine with fat-soluble Vit. , coticosteroids with calcium, and suslfasalizine with folate)
- Treatment- Maintain adequate protein and kcal intake and vitamins.
- Complication-Fistulas, bowel perforation, obstruction and abscess.
Chronic inflammation of the mucosa of the large intestine.
Chronic inflammatory disease of distal ileum, colon and anorectal area.
High PRO (30-35), high KCAL (200) with liberal fat and sodium.
- Congestive hear failure
- -results in sodium and fluid retention
- -sodium restricted diet and K+ replacement is necessary.
sodium conserving hormone that operates in the renin-angiotensin mechanism to conserve sodium in exchange for potassium causing re-absorption of water to maintain body fluids.
- inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney.
- -control fluid intake. Provide sufficient kcal and control protein, sodium.
- inflammation of the kidney.
- -Provide adequate kcal. 70 high biologic value PRO to ensure positive nitrogen balance. Restrict PRO, sodium or potassium when there is edema, hyperkalemia or uremia.
- toxic condition produced by the retention in blood of nitrogenous substances. Terminal manifestation of renal failure.
- -Provide adequate kcal and control PRO, fluid and electrolytes according to lab data and renal function.
- set of symptoms applied to renal disease. edema, heavy albuminuria and proteinuria.
- -sufficient PRO (35) for + N balance. 3g Sodium to reduce edema
Acute renal failure
- Nutritional priorities-
- -Preserve body cell mass.
- -Providing enough KCAL to permit maintenance of vital functions
- -Providing enough PRO to replace amino acids lost from catabolism and dialysis.
Acid ash diet
high in meat, poultry, fish fish, whole grains to promote acidity in urine
Calcium Oxalate stone
- accounts for most kidney stones.
- -High Calcium diet limiting oxalate sources ( fruits, veg, cocoa, tea, beer)
- ketosis of diabetes
- -increased respiration
- -decreased hydrogen ions excretion
- treat- correct bicarbonate level, combat hyperkalemia
- low serum pH, high serum CO2.
- -increased bicarbonate reabsorption
- increased HCO3 and pH, Low Cl and K.
- -decreased ventilation, renal bicarbonate, K excretion
- -Treat-KCl, isotonic saline
- increased pH,low pCO2,H2CO3
- -Bicarbonate excretion
hypermetabolic state diet should contain adequate kcals and liberal PRO
use liberal protein, high kcal that is high in vitamins and mod fat
- reduce protein and nutrients requiring hepatic processing.
- -Give lactulose to inhibit GI absorption of ammonia and other toxic nitrogenous sources.
- NPO in acute phase with hydration.
- -progress at tolerated with low fat, frequent small feedings with med chain TG oil with pancreatic enzymes
Ketogenic diet- VERY HIGH IN FAT used sometimes to treat
Cerebral vascular accident (stroke)
-Treatm.- primarily preventive, BP control, dietary restrictions of cholesterol, SAT fats and sodium. Incr. fruits, veg, fish, and aspirin.
urine test used to diagnose tumors in case of unexplained hypertension.
Leanest cuts of meat
loin and round
connective tissue unaffected by heat or moisture
also known as WHOLESALE
also known as retail cuts
Meat standards packaging labels include
kind of meat, cut name and specific retail name
Federal Meat Inspection Act
- regulates interstate.
- -examines live animals
- -Parts of animal susceptible to disease
- -packing plant
U.S Inspection Stamp for meats ensures
- -does not relate quality or tenderness only that its fit for human consumption.
Wholesome Meat Act
made inspection mandatory
Agency which implemented HACCP
Quality rating of meats
- -Marbling, firmness, color and texture
Color of meat is due to
- pigment Myoglobin and Hemoglobin
- -color indicates freshness
- -When exposed to air meat is bright red
Least tender cuts
lower leg muscles, flank and neck
Effect of Acid on meat
makes meat more moist not tender
Storage temp of meats
- Fresh @ 41 or lower.
- Frozen @ 0 or lower.
- Causes a browning effect.
- -sugars+PRO+Heat= Browning
Fresh Poultry Storage Temp
16-32 deg (deep chill method)
Bones and veg in cold water, skim top.
same as white but bones are browned first
- -Speeds tenderization.
- -In large amount makes beans mushy, destroy thiamin and soapy taste.
USDA 1 (highest quality),2,3
Cancer causing agent produced from mold or fungi in beans
fermented soybeans and grains
soy-based aged meat substitute
soybeans ground with water. Little calcium unless fortified.
Most seeds are low in amino acid
only nuts that contain Vit C. Low fat and kcals
ground sesame seeds. Have of calcium is bound by oxalates
Egg white contains
albumin, riboflavin, PRO
egg yolk contains
fat, cholesterol, vitamins, iron
Egg white coagulates at what temp
Greater than 130
whole eggs coagulate at what temp
Function of eggs in baking and cooking
Emulsification, structure, color, flavor, aeration,
Components of milk
- PRO- Casein, lactoglobin, albumin
- CHO- Lactose
- Fat- mainly TG
Milk and other dairy lack
iron and Vitamin C
made from low-fat milk and lactic acid bacteria
60% of moisture removed
has about half of moisture removed and sugar added.
fat replaced with veg oil
has live cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus- part of human GI flora and produce vit B
animal enzyme used to coagulate milk to make cheese
Primary grains that feed the world
Rice, wheat, corn
- hull or outer coating of the grain
- -cellulose, hemicellulose, vitamins (thiamin, niacin, riboflavin)
- central portion of grain
- -contains starch and protein
small part containing unsaturated fats, protein, iron and vitamins (thiamin, niacin, riboflavin)
Short Grain Rice
most starch, sticky and tender ( good for risotto)
Medium Grain Rice
firm when hot, sticky when cools
Long Grain Rice
grains separate easily, less amylopectin (branched starch)
Dried grain is found in two forms
- -CORNMEAL ( for breads)
- -Hominy or Polenta ( dried corn kernel)
Cereal grains are deficient in
lysine and tryptophan
- higher protein and lower gluten than wheat
- -high in lysine
restores nutrients lost during processing
- Adds nutrients not originally found in product.
- -such as with folic acid to reduce neural tube defect
- contained in whole grain products.
- -Binds calcium and iron and reduces absorption.
- traps CO2 as it forms during leavening and gives volume and structure.
- -Water and Fat prevent gluten from forming
high gluten content used for pastas
Softer summer wheat
weak gluten and used for cake flour
- releases CO2 from powder and activates yeast
- -gelatinizes starch, moistens, dissolves sugar and salt.
tenderizes, improves texture and aids in levening
- flavors, browns and tenderizes
- -softens gluten and raises the coagulation point of eggs
emulsifying, color, flavor, leavening agent
- incorporates air, CO2 or steam.
- -air leavening is done by whipping, beating, sifting.
- added by chemical reactions or microorganisms
- -adding an acid and a soda will release CO2
- Products have high water content and use high heat
- -Yeast produces CO2
Muffin problems caused by
- over mixing- Tunnels, peaked top, pale slick crust
- under mixing (undissolved soda)- low volume, flat top, brown specs
- 1. Tough crust- too little fat or sugar2. Hump in middle- oven too hot3. uneven texture- incomplete mixing
- 4. Bitter flavor- too little cooking time, or too much baking powder
Produces clear thickening
Produces organic gels
used to thicken frozen products, processed foods and baby foods
what happens to starch when mixed with water, granules swell
- partial starch hydrolysis caused by an acid, heat and enzymes. Dextrins are release as in bread making.
- -Dextrins thicken less than most starch
A toxin release from potatoes from exposure to light
When cooking green vegetables
When cooking red vegetables
cover to preserve color
To release sulfur compounds from veg
Causes ripening of fruits
Sulfur dioxide (Sulfites)
- used to prevent browning, color or flavor changes of products such as dried fruits or wines
- -treating fresh produced is banned. Must be indicated on other products label.
- Fat soluble pigment in F/V
- -Magnesium is the center of the porphyrin ring
- -replaced with hydrogen, dulls color in an acid.
- Fat soluble pigment
- -Retain color when heated or acid
- Water soluble
- -Anthocyanin-blue-red, purple
- -Anthoxanthin-Colorless, pale yellow
- -Phenols or tannins- clear, white, brown
- -an acid will prevent color change
Produces oils that will stay clear when solid
Makes fat less coarse and grainy such as lard
added to fats to prevent rancidity
BHA and BHT
Antioxidants added to prevent lipid oxidation
Highest temp for cooking fat
Fatty Acids in fat
will lower the smoke point
fat suspended in large amount of water
milk, cream, salad dressing
Water droplets suspended in large amounts of fat
air trapped as an emulsion in fat
butter cream icing, whipped butter
sweetener used in candy making
sucrose- forms crystals
Main sugars in Honey
Fructose and Glusoce
calcium silicate, iron ammonium citrate, silicon dioxide, sorbitol
Calcium proponate, sulfur dioxide
Bleaching and Maturing agents
Lecithin, mono and diglycerides
Flavors and flavor enhancers
MSG, hydrolyzed vegetable proteins
glycerol monosterate, propylene glycol
yeast, baking powder
pectins, guar gum, xanthan gum, gelatin, carrageenen
- -Fructose (levulose)
- -Galactose ( from lactose digestion)
is glucose from the hydrolysis of cornstarch
- Glycogen-Storage CHO in the body
- Starch-Storage CHO in plants
- Dextrins-intermediates of starch hydrolysis
- Fiber-structural carb
Essential amino acids
- transfer of one amino group from one compound to the next
- -Requires Vit B6
- Removal of an amino group from an amino acid
- -the liver convert amino acids into non-nitrogen compounds to be used for energy
High sources of Polyunsaturated oils (high to low)
- -Corn oil
- -Peanut oil
highest source of monounsaturated oil (high to low)
highest source of Saturated oil (high to low)
cholesterol is hydrolyzed by
all the carbons in cholesterol come from
cholesterol is a precursor of
hormones, vit D, glucocorticoids, estrogen,androgens, progestins
reduced form of iron
What is required for the hydroxylation of cholesterol for bile acid synthesis
Involved in CHO and lipid metabolism
Involved in protein, neurotransmitter and hormone metabolism
- -involved with folate in the synthesis of DNA/RNA
- -myelin sheet of nerves
- -Fat, CHO metabolism
- -RBC maturation
- -Keeps folate in its active form
Necessary for B12 absorption
-needed for the synthesis and catabolism of amino acids
- Nicotinic acid
- -NAD/NADP (NADH/NADPH reduced forms)- needed for energy production in krebs cycle, CHO oxydation, fatty acid synthesis
Niacin can be synthesized from what amino acid
- Constituent of Coenzyme A (CoA)
- -CoA needed for fatty acid synthesis.
- -oxidation of CHO, PRO, and fat for energy.
- -Utilization depend on folate and biotin
necessasy for the conversion of B6, Folate, Niacin and Vit K to their active forms
- -regulates muscle tone of GI tract.
- -Co enzyme is CHO metabolism, decarboxylation of keto acid
- -transketolase reaction in pentose shunt.
Highest concentration of thiamin
lean pork, ham, Brazil nut
required for amino acid metabolism and conversion niacin to tryptophan
- Vit D
- -promotes mineralization of bones by promoting absorption of calcium.
- -Increases the absorption of calcium by the kidney and maintains normal blood levels of calcium
Conversion of Calciferol when skin exposed to sunligh
- natural hormone in the skin
- 7-dihydry vitamin ----> Cholecalciferol when to sunlight
Plant form of Vit D
- Vit A
- -Maintains integrity of skin and epithelial tissue, required for night vision and growth.
- -Regulates structure/function of cellular/subcellular membranes.
- -Bone/tooth formation, and plays role in immune reactions.
Transport form of Vit A
Active form of Vitamin A
Vit A stored in the liver as
an ester, vitamin A acetate
- Vit E
- -protect membranes and RBC from oxidative damage or breakdown by inactivating free radicals.
- -oxidative protection of Vit A
- -protects RBC WBC and improves immune response
-required for the syntheiss of blood clotting factors such as prothrombin ond other proteins
Found in green plants
formed by bacterial action in the GI tract
Synthetic form and most biologically reactive
- necessary for blood coagulation, muscle function, transmission of nerve impulses, regulation of cell permeability.
- -Calcium homeostasis- if blood Ca levels fall, vit D, parathrome and calcitonin aid in regulation.
Cl, Na, K
aid in regulation of fluid balance, acid/base balance and cell membrane transfer
- makes insulin action more effective and aids in glucose homeostasis.
- -role in CHO and fat metabolism
- -part of enzymes necessary for RBC syntheis
- -required for iron absorption in the form of hemoglobin.
prevents dental carries by improving teeth and bone strength
-synthesis of thyroxine in the thyroid gland
hormone that regulates cellular oxidation and basal metabolism
In foods, iron is found in what form
iron is stored as
- component of heme
- -enables tissues to utilize oxygen and eliminate CO2
- -required for cellular oxidation
- stabilizes structure of ATP
- -helps maintain muscle contractibility
- -required for fatty acid , nucleic acid, and protein synthesis
- component of ATP, DNA, RNA, B vit coenzymes, lipoproteins and buffers.
- -aids in transport of fatty acids, absorption of glucose and glycerol thru phosphorylation.
- -Major part of buffer system, excretion of H ions
cofactor in glutathione peroxidase
removes hydrogen peroxide and prevent free radical formation.
- needed for DNA, RNA synthesis
- -CHO, PRO, alcohol metabolism
- -for energy, growth, wound healing wounds, immune response
- -constituent of enzymes and insulin
Water needs for healthy adults
1.5-2 liters of water/day
Human milk protein content
Pre-pregnancy weight gain
- 1. Normal weight- 25-35lbs
- 2. Underweight- 28-40 lbs
- 3. Overweight- 15-25 lbs
obese should gain at least 15lbs
Digestion of CHO in the stomach
- Gastric secretions
- 1. HCl
- 2. Gastric lipase
- 3. Mucus
- 4. intrinsic factor
- 5. Gastrin
Digestions of PRO in stomach
Digestion of CHO in small intestine
Pancreatic amylase, maltase, sucrase, lactase
Digestion of PRO in small intestine
Pancreatic and intestinal protease
Digestion of FAT in small intestine
Bile, pancreatic lipase
Digestion in Large Intestines
intestinal bacteria produce Vit K and absorbed here. Water absorption
- cell concentration > lumen
- -Glucose and amino acids pumped thru membrane this way
- process of free transfer of substances across membrane to reach equilibrium.
- Sodium follows water passively
movement of nutrients across membrane from high to low concentration
Carrier mediated diffusion
a carrier shuttles nutrients across membrane
membrane engulfs particles. some whole proteins enter this way.
- anaerobic stage of glucose metabolism
- -cell cytoplasm
- -glucose--> pyruvic acid
- -needs 2 ATP, 4 ATP produced.
- -Pyruvic acid--> lactate--> bloodstream
- -6 CO2 molecules produced
- -needs niacin, riboflavin, thiamin
- via the electron transport system
- synthesizes urea from deanimation of amino acids.
- CO2 +NH3----> ARGININE
- -Process requires ATP
- addition of O2, removal of H+, or loss of electrons
- -requires energy
Gain of electron
catalyzed by oxidoreductase
- -secreted by beta cell of pancreass
- -Lower BS
- -Inhibits gluconeogenesis
- Produced by alpha cell in islets of lengerhans
- -hyperglycemic -glycogenolytic factor
- -Increases BS
- -raises BS
- -Regulates BMR and oxygen consumption
GH and ACTH
- secreted by anterior pituitary gland
- -raise BS by actin as insulin antagonist
release in response to nutrient consumption and produce a feeling of satiety.
glucose from non-CHO courses (pyruvate)
breakdown of glycogen to glucose